Ceramic Chemist at Winkle Terra Cotta Co., St Louis, and founder of the American Ceramic Society.
Source: Reformatted article by Samuel Geijsbeek. In pages 289–355 of Transactions of the American Ceramic Society, Volume VII—Part III: Containing Papers and Discussions Read at the meeting Held at Birmingham, Alabama, Jany. 30 and Feby. 1, 1905, With Some Other Contributions. Some spelling and punctuation has been edited.
THE CERAMICS OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION.
By S. Geijsbeek, St. Louis, Mo.
The Ceramic exhibits of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, held in St. Louis, in 1904, were in a sense the best which had ever been brought together for such purposes. The foreign exhibits proved especially instructive for the American Ceramic amateur and manufacturer, and they demonstrated plainly the great advance which foreign countries still have over us in the manufacture of finer ceramic products.
The leading American ceramic manufacturers were well represented with the exception of the whiteware potteries. In the coarser grades of ceramic ware we have practically no competition from abroad, and our products are just as good and sometimes better than foreign made. In the field of refractories we are steadily using better fireclays, and our wares compare favorably with any imported products. In faience we are showing just as good work as any foreign country can produce. In terra cotta we are doing excellent work. In finer ceramics we hardly exist, but the attempts have been many, and gradually we will get a hold on this branch of the pottery industry.
The advance of technical ceramic education was shown by several exhibitors, and is a step in the right direction.
In preparing an article like this, we can follow several ways in describing and reviewing the exhibits. First, we might review the countries and states, with their exhibitors, as a nationality, and secondly, we might describe the whole exposition by classification of the different materials and products.
In the first case we obtain a comprehensive idea as to what each country can do without comparison as to the merits of the particular countries, while by the second method, we can make a direct comparative review of all exhibits in the same classification.
In the following review we have taken the second method as being in our estimate the better one, and have adopted the following classification:
- Part I. General Arrangement.
- Part II. Educational Ceramics.
- Part III. Raw materials, Machinery, Kilns, Pyrometers and Accessories, Chemical Oxides and Ceramic Colors.
- Part IV. Building Ceramics.
- (a) Plain building products:
- (b) Decorative building products:
Encaustic and vitrified tile,
- (a) Plain building products:
- Part V. Refractory Ceramics:
Glass pots and tank blocks,
- Part VI. Pottery:
- Part VII. Conclusions.
All exhibits are described by countries in alphabetical order.
Part I: General Arrangement
In studying ceramics at the St. Louis Fair, it was necessary to have a good conception of the location of all exhibition palaces. There was certainly no other industry scattered in as many buildings, and this even in spite of the efforts of the National Brick Manufacturers Association, under the leadership of Prof. H. A. Wheeler, to concentrate American Ceramics in one building. This effort was partly successful as far as the coarser grades of ceramic ware were concerned, and the exhibits displaying these products were located under the name of “Clay Industries Exhibit,” in block 20, Mines and Metallurgy Building.
The materials and products embraced in the groups as classified above from part II to part V, inclusive, were for the greater part located in the same building as the Clay Industries Exhibit, while Part VI, “Pottery,” was scattered in about eight different buildings. There were pottery exhibits in the Varied Industries, Manufacturers, Liberal Arts, Fine Arts, Educational, Electricity, Horticulture, and Anthropology and State Buildings.
This state of disarrangement plainly indicates that the potters make a distinct dividing line between their products and the raw materials from which their products are manufactured. It also shows that in order to make a collective exhibit of the pottery industry, in connection with other ceramic products, there must be drawn closer lines than those existing today.
Part II: Educational Ceramics
The exhibits which we value from an educational standpoint are those made by clayworking schools and universities having a ceramic department, as well as exhibits which show details of manufacture or manufacturing processes in fact. We find the foreigner in the lead as far as schools are concerned, and this is the more to be regretted, as this country has several institutions which in quality rank with the best foreign schools in ceramics.
Austria. Austria showed by means of samples of pottery, tiles in plain and decorative designs, what its government institutions are doing to help the ceramic industry. The Imperial Royal Schools of Applied Arts, of Vienna and Prague, and the State Schools for Arts and Crafts of Teplitz and Bechyn, both in Bohemia, gave good illustrations of the products of their ceramic departments in both technical and artistic results.
France and Germany did not show anything in the line of educational ceramics, but as these two countries at the same time maintain government factories, the exhibits of these plants could be construed as being educational also. We will, however, describe these exhibits under the pottery division.
Japan. The best exhibit under this classification was made by the Japanese Government. The departments of ceramics of the University of Ishikawa-Kenand, of Tokyo and the Arita Art and Industrial school of Saga-Ken showed their plan of ceramic education. It is rather astonishing to notice that the Japanese, being such old time potters, have taken the initiative to modernize their ceramic art, and have adopted Dr. Seger’s methods in accomplishing these changes.
To find complete tables with burnt glazed samples, marked with chemical formulae and melting points expressed in Seger cones, was certainly a treat even to those who do not think that technical education extends beyond their own horizon.
United States. The New York Clayworking School, of Alfred, N. Y., had a pottery exhibit in the Educational Building, which was more of an art than an educational exhibit.
Of the private enterprises which had made very excellent exhibits along educational lines were the exhibits of Mr. Ernest Mayer, of the Mayer Pottery Co., Beaver Falls, Pa., and of Mr. F. W. Walker, of the Beaver Falls Art Tile Co., also of Beaver Falls, Pa. Modeled on the same lines was the exhibit of the Star Encaustic Tile Co., of Pittsburg, Pa. The exhibit of the Mayer Pottery Co. gave us a systematic idea as to the manufacture of whiteware from the raw material to the finished product. First, we see samples with the analysis of the different ingredients used in the body, further an analysis of the washed body. Then follow the glaze ingredients and the frit. With a plate-mold, green, biscuit and glazed pieces is illustrated the process of manufacture. The sagger body composition, and the methods of setting the ware, are plainly shown. Plain and decorated ware is shown as samples of the product of the pottery. Under and over glaze colors in the ground state, the method of printing and transferring, are all shown in minute details. The whole exhibit gave us a better insight into the manufacture of whiteware than we could have gotten by a personal visit to such potteries.
The Beaver Falls Art Tile Co. exhibit described in the same thorough manner the manufacture of glazed wall and vitrified tiles. First, the different clays from which the tiles are made, were shown, then was illustrated the handling of the tiles in saggers for the biscuit and glaze burns, and finally we found glazed tiles in different colors and shades. The whole exhibit had been arranged on highly instructive lines.
As the practical demonstration of the manufacturing processes of any industry can be considered as being instructive and educational, it would be proper to mention here the working exhibit of the Weller Pottery Co., of Zanesville, Ohio, located in the Mining Gulch and being a miniature pottery in full operation.
Ceramic literature was well represented. The Americans were very strongly in evidence. The “Sprechsaal,” of Coburg, Germany, the “Clayworker,” of Indianapolis, and “Brick,” of Chicago, were the few individual exhibitors.
The Transactions of the American Ceramic Society and the Seger Translation attracted much attention. The N. B. M. A. headquarters exhibit was well arranged.
The “Brickbuilder,” of Boston, “Clay Record,” of Chicago, “Keramic Studio,” of Syracuse, N. Y., and “Rock Products,” of Louisville, Ky., had their current issues on file in the Clay Industries exhibit.
Part III: Raw Materials
It was not a difficult matter to obtain a comprehensive idea of the raw materials used in the ceramic industry, as they were all, with a few exceptions, located in the Mines and Metallurgy Building. It was natural that the United States should furnish the largest number of such exhibits, and that states like New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and North Carolina were well represented. Of the foreign countries, the English and the Japanese were the best as far as the ceramic raw materials were concerned.
Those states in which we find abundant clay materials but which so far have not been used to any extent for manufacturing purposes, had taken special pains to have manufactured products made from such clays by firms of other states, in order to bring out the possibilities of their raw material resources, and thus invite closer attention and inspection by the visitor. The terra cotta entrances of the state exhibit of Kentucky, and the special exhibit of the state of North Dakota, were excellent examples of this character. We will describe these products more closely in the report of the manufactured products. In this chapter we will take the states and foreign countries in alphabetical order, and mention the raw materials exclusively.
Brazil. Judging from the exhibits of Brazil of clays, kaolins, quartz and feldspars, we must consider this country, although naturally quite undeveloped, as having a great future. Some of the clays shown have good plasticity, and the kaolin samples are quite pure. The quartz and feldspar specimens were good. Flack & Co., of Rio de Janeiro, and Com. M. de Paranagua, of Parana, showed the best samples.
Canada. The Dominion of Canada had a collective exhibit which contained several good specimens of clays and feldspars. The state of Ontario had the most promising samples.
Ceylon. The Ceylon Government had several samples of good white clays, while F. T. Ellawala, of Ratnapura, exhibited clays of good quality and also samples of tiles in which these clays were used.
China. The Imperial Chinese Government exhibit contained quite a few specimens of china clays and decomposed feldspars. The Chinese Engineering & Mining Co., of Tientsin, had several varieties of fire clays which were excellent in quality.
France. Although France did not show any ceramic raw materials, the exhibit of Francis Laue, of Paris, of bauxite and the process of producing pure aluminum is worth mentioning.
Germany. The German glass pot clays, which are so well known in this country, were represented by two firms, the Tonwerk Schippach, of Schippach, near Klingenberg on the Main, and Aug. Gundlach & Co., of Grossalmerode.
Great Britain. Judging from the annual importation into this country of English clays, it was not astonishing to see represented so many firms in that line. While the whole exhibit was arranged by the Mining Department of the British Government, the clays and kaolins were well represented. Of the English china clays we will mention, the Devonshire china clays from the mines of N. Abbott, and the St. Stephens china clays, from the Bramwell Mines in Cornwall. Cornwall Stone was exhibited by the last mentioned firm also. Of ball clays we find specimens in all colors, samples of the Fountain Clay Mines, in Kingstegton, best Stourbridge clay from the Amblecote mines in Staffordshire. We found also a variety of clays used for floor tiles and fire bricks. The Gillhead Mines, in Cumberland, and the Ganister Mines, of Yorkshire, seem to be the most prominent.
Japan. The Imperial Geological Survey of Japan, working under the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, had a very well arranged exhibit of kaolins, feldspar and stoneware clays, and also compounded body mixtures. The samples shown are used in the manufacture of some of the well known typical Japanese pottery and stoneware.
The lirst samples were the raw materials for making Arita porcelain, (Arita-yaki). They are decomposed, liparite from Arita, Hizen Co., called Izumiyama-ishi, and from Amakusa, Higo Co., called Amakusa-ishi. The decomposed material is white, and the pulverized samples show a fine grain. The sample of the body consists of four parts of the first and one part of the second sample.
Kyoto porcelain (Kiyomizu-yaki) specimens were shown next. Here we find another decomposed liparite (Takahama-ishi), also from Amakusa, Higo Co., further two samples of decomposed granite (Tokiguchi-Gairome and Takao-Gairome) from Tokiguchi, Mino Co., and from Takao, Yamashiro Co., ball clay (Shigaraki-zuchi) from Kinose, Omi Co., and also feldspar samples (Choseki) from Mikuma, Omi Co. Further, quartz samples (Keiseki) from Hiroshima, Sanuki Co., used in the body composition. The body making up this porcelain consists of
- Seven parts decomposed liparite (Takahama-ishi),
- One part decomposed granite (Tokiguchi-Gairome),
- One part feldspar, (Choseki),
- One part quartz (Keiseki).
- Samples of this body were shown.
Awada stoneware (Wada-yaki) can be made from several different clays, as indicated by the variety of the samples exhibited. Agalmatolite, (Roseki), from Mitsuishi, Bizen Co., a decomposed quartz porphyry, (Rokujizo- Mazetsuchi) from Rokujizo, kaolin (Shiroe-zuchi) from Shimoda, clay from decomposed granite (Nendo) from Shinohara, further a carbonaceous clay (Asamiya-Kibushi) from Asamiya, which are all located in Omi County. A decomposed Aplite (Yada-Mazetsuchi), from Yada, Yamato Co., and another carbonaceous clay (Imayama-Kibishi) by which we think is understood calcareous clay from Imayama, Yamashiro Co. The sample of the washed, dry body mixture, consists of
- 10 parts Roseki.
- 10 parts Mazetsuchi and
- 15 parts Shigarakizuchi.
Satsuma stoneware (Satsuma-yaki) materials are decomposed andesite, (kaolin), (Kirishima-tsuhi), from Kirishimayama, Osumi Co., another andesite (Baratsuchi), from Higashikata, Satsuma Co., and further a silicious tufa (Kasedazuna) from Kaseda, also in Satsuma Co. The washed body samples consist of
- Three parts Kirishima-tzuchi,
- Eighteen parts Bara-tzuchi,
- Thirteen parts Kaseda-zuna.
Awaji stoneware (Awaji-yaki) seems to be manufactured from one single clay deposit, while there was only one sample shown, that of a redeposited clay from a granite formation (Ono-tzuchi) from Ono, Awaji County. The washed sample for the body shows that the clay must contain noticeable quantities of foreign matter.
Kaga porcelain, (Kutani-yaki), was illustrated by several samples of raw material, which all come from the county of Kaga. Here we also find liparite samples, Hanasaka-tzuchi, Gokokuji-tzuchi and Nabetani-tzuchi, from Hanasaka, Gokokuji and Nabetani respectively.
The body consists of five parts of each of the first two samples and three parts of the last named sample.
Aizu porcelain, (Aizu-yaki), was also made from decomposed liparite, which is mined in three places in the county of Iwashiro. The samples are Okubo-ishi from Hongo, Kabuto-ishi, from Oki, and Jari-ishi, from Hongo. The washed body sample consists of three parts of the two first samples and two parts of the last sample.
Seto porcelain, (Seto-yaki), was made from the following raw materials, decomposed granite (Gairome) from Yamaguchi, Owari Co., feldspar and quartz, from Takaoka and Sarunage, Mikawa County, respectively. The composition of the body is 10 parts of decomposed granite, 5 parts of feldspar and two parts of quartz.
Tajimi porcelain, (Tajimi-yaki), also mostly consists of decomposed granite (Tokiguchi-Gairome), from Tokiguchi, Mino County, feldspar, (Choseki), from Ohiro, Mikawa Co., and quartz, (keiseki), from Tsumagi, Mino County. The body is slightly different from Seto porcelain, and is made of two parts Gairome, three parts Choseki, and five parts of Keiseki.
All samples were shown in the crude and washed state, and judging from the many localities from which these samples came, Japan must have an unlimited supply of materials for the manufacture of pottery. Besides these samples which we found in the Mines Building, there was one sample of porcelain clay from Murotami Co., exhibited in the Manufacturers’ Building. The price named for this clay was 20 Yen, about $10 per ton, at the mines.
Besides the better class of white clays there were several samples of excellent brick clays; a clay from Yamashirodani, Awa Co., and a sandy loam from Nihommatsu, Iwashiro Co., especially are worth mentioning.
Mexico. Mexico only exhibited three samples of clay, two of which were brick clays from the same locality, Zumpango, and a fairly good kaolin sample from Pinos, state of Zacatecas.
Nicaragua. In its pavilion Nicaragua exhibited a few samples of clay. The Jefatura Politica, of Matagalpa, Jinotega and Nueve Segovia, had a collection of clay samples from all three localities.
United States. In reporting the United States of America we will also take the states alphabetically. In many instances we found the clays of the states exhibited in their state exhibits, and also in the Clay Industries Exhibit, like Georgia, New Jersey, and others. On the other hand, we found that the individual exhibitors had mostly exhibited in the Clay Industries Exhibit only.
Alabama. As a clayworking state, Alabama is only very young, and the exhibition of its clay resources was very limited, in fact, it did not at all show the possibilities of what the state could do regarding the clayworking industries. F. Y. Anderson, of Birmingham, exhibited a sample of kaolin from Fort Payne, DeKalb Co. The Alabama Geological Survey and J. Pierce, of Giun, had samples of kaolin from Chalk Bluff, Marion Co. We did not find any fire clay exhibit nor the products which are used in the iron and steel district of Birmingham.
Arkansas. The clays of the state are not developed to any extent, and the few samples of brick and stoneware clays are not very promising. Any data assisting in forming an opinion as to their extent was wanting.
The bauxite exhibits of this state, however, attracted wide attention, and the exhibits of the American Bauxite Co., of Little Rock, with an exceptionally large piece of bauxite, deserved special mention. The Pittsburg Reduction Co., with mines at Perrysmith, showed its bauxite and the finished products of aluminum.
California. The State Mining Bureau had several good samples of kaolin and clay on exhibition, while many of the counties exhibited samples in lump form. Judging from the many county exhibits, California must have abundant clay resources which are quite undeveloped and unexplored. Not less than twenty-six counties showed clay samples, and while most of them could be used for brick manufacture, several samples show possibilities for the better classes of clayware. None of the clay manufacturers showed any samples of their raw material, nor was there any state survey publication on clay resources.
The Pacific Borax Co., of San Francisco, had borax and boracic acid and other by-products exhibited. As this material is used so extensively by potters, the exhibit was very instructive, as it showed the different methods of obtaining the finished products.
Colorado. This state showed some very good specimens of fire and plastic clays. The Golden district, in which the principal clay mines of the state are located, was well represented. Geo. W. Parfet, of Golden, showed the different samples of his fire clays, stoneware and plastic brick clays, while the Denver Fire Clay Co., of Denver, had specimens of its fire clays, from which the well known Denver assayers supplies goods are made. The Cresto Clay Co., of Boulder, and the Pike’s Peak Brick Co., of Colorado Springs, also showed their raw materials. The Van Briggle Pottery, of Colorado Springs, had samples of its crude and washed clay material.
Georgia. One of the few states which had made a special exhibit in the Clay Industries Exhibit was Georgia. The State Geological Survey had large pieces of kaolin, which were very pure and burned to a good white, as was proved by the samples exhibited.
I. Mandle, of St. Louis, Mo., exhibited samples of his Georgia kaolin from Bibb County. With burned and glazed samples of almost any kind of pottery ware, he showed the great use of this grade of kaolin by manufacturers.
Illinois. The state of Illinois does not maintain a Geological Survey, however, many exhibitors were represented in the clay line. We found many brick and stoneware clays, and a few samples of impure ball clays from Union County. Goodman, of Cobden, exhibited several samples of white clay which were badly stained with iron. The Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., of Chicago, had samples of terra cotta clays in the ground state.
Iowa. This state showed that its main clay resources are good for brick purposes. A few samples of stoneware clays were shown, also some fire clay samples. Boone, Hardin, Polk and Webster Counties were best represented.
Kansas. On account of its natural gas supply Kansas is fast developing its clay resources. The Capital City Vitrified Paving Brick Co. showed samples of its shale; the Coffeeville Shale Brick Co. had also some very good shale samples. Several of the other manufacturers had samples of their clays.
Kentucky. Kentucky was one of the states which had, besides the state exhibit, also a display in the Clay Industries Exhibit.
The whole arrangement of these exhibits indicates that the state is rich in clay resources. A terra cotta arch, made from Kentucky clay, was the entrance to the clay section. In cases, well arranged, we found the different clays and burnt samples, and sometimes glazed samples of the natural clay, side by side. While, of course, the brick and fire clays are predominant, the better grades of clays, ball-clays and kaolins were well represented. It is evident that Kentucky will play a very important part in the clay industry at some future date, as the close proximity of these clays to the manufacturing centers will give the state preference over the states further south. The Geological State Exhibit contained over one hundred different clay samples from different localities, which run from kaolin to brick clays.
A sample of kaolin from Hart County was a very remarkable specimen of excellent qualities. Mayfield ball clays were shown by two firms.
In the Clay Industries Exhibit we found a large block of fire clay of the Louisville Fire Brick Co., of Louisville, which was of very good quality.
Maryland. The Geological Survey of Maryland had a well arranged exhibit of the various clays of the state, while none of the exhibiting manufacturers had any samples of the clays which they are using. Of the fire clays, the Mount Savage, Alleghany Co., flint fire clays were the most prominent samples.
Of special interest to the clayworker were a set of photographs, showing the various apparatus used in testing road building materials, which are practically the same as those used for scientific clay testing.
Michigan. The clays of this state are mostly used for brick purposes. We did not find any clays suitable for the better grades of clayware. The cement factories made exhibits of the clays and marls used in their products.
Minnesota. In the state exhibit we found several samples of clays, also some quartzite. The brick clays are predominant in this state.
Mississippi. The clays of Mississippi were represented by many samples, which, however, did not show anything that would be suitable for the better grades of clayware. The fact remains, however, that George E. Ohr, of Biloxi, demonstrated by his various shapes of pottery ware that even common clays can be used to excellent purposes.
Missouri. In the state exhibit we found only a few samples of the many good clays found in the state. In the Clay Industries Exhibit we found the clays of the state better represented. The exhibit of Fred. Bausch, of St. Louis, represented the typical fire clays in the state, while in terra cotta, sewer pipe and brick clays, many samples were shown. In the Mining Gulch, we found a pavilion where fire clay, sewer pipe and brick clays were specially exhibited by many firms. The Cheltenham fire clays and the shale clays were shown in large specimens.
Montana. Only a few brick and fire clays were shown in this exhibit.
Nebraska. The state is well provided with good red burning clays. The different samples were exhibited by the manufacturers with their finished products, while the Geological Survey had several samples of clay from the various counties of the state.
Nevada, like the other western states, has its clay resources not developed to any extent, and while different counties showed good clays suitable for the building and fire brick line, their good qualities were not indicated by any manufactured product.
New Jersey. The state of New Jersey was well represented both in the state exhibit as well as in the Clay Industries Exhibit. Middlesex county had the best exhibit, and also is the greatest shipper and miner of all kinds of clays. We found samples from this county in all grades, kaolins, fire clays, terra cotta clays, also ball clays and sagger clays. Woodridge, Sayreville, and South Amboy are well known representative localities. The exhibit of the New Jersey Geological Survey in the Clay Industries Exhibit deserved special mention. Here was shown that scientific investigation, and tabulated results are of great value to any state. It is an honor which certainly belongs to the state of New Jersey, it being the first to show to the public, what can be done to advance the clayworking industry of a state, by giving intelligent information in regard to nature’s deposits. We found samples of the crude and burnt samples, data about shrinkage in drying and burning, the tensile strength of the clays in the wet and dry state. The burnt trials were burnt at three temperatures, cone 3, 5 and 10.
Chas. A. Bloomfield, of Metuchen, was the only individual exhibitor of the state in clays, but the exhibit was poorly arranged.
Quite interesting was also the only exhibit of its kind—a model of the clay-washing plant of Edgar Bros., of Sayreville.
New York. This state showed only a few clays of minor importance, and was poorly represented so far as the clay resources are concerned.
North Carolina. This state is rich in the better grades of clays for pottery purposes. We found that the state had made a special effort to show the different localities where kaolins are mined. The Harris Clay Co., of Dillsboro, as individual exhibitor, showed samples of its kaolin, which is excellent in quality. They showed the extensiveness of their trade by burnt pieces of all kinds of pottery, tile, enameled brick, from all parts of the U. S., in which their product has been used.
The Geological Survey showed also some very good samples of albite, orthoclase, feldspar and quartz.
North Dakota. The clay exhibit of this state was especially gotten up to show what could be done with the undeveloped deposits of clays in the state. Stark County seems to have a rather unlimited supply of different kinds of clay. The products made from the clays in the state were certainly very interesting to the visitor. It must, however, be borne in mind that the products were all made in factories outside of the state, further that there was no data whatever giving information how large a quantity of the home clay was used in producing these articles. It is quite possible that these clays, by themselves, could be used exclusively for manufacturing these products, but it might be possible that they were mixed with eastern clays in order to show results, and especially since the well trained eye of an intelligent observer could easily detect the similarity of the products exhibited with those made by some eastern firms.
Ohio. The principal exhibit of clays of this state was made in the Clay Industries Exhibit, while some of the products were also shown in the state exhibit. The exhibits were well arranged, and jars properly labeled give a good idea of the extent of the clay resources of the state. Brick clays, fire clays and stoneware clays are found in large quantities and in different localities. The varieties of the finished products exhibited certainly show that Ohio is one of the largest states in the Union as far as the clayworking industries are concerned.
Oklahoma. There are several counties in this state that had samples of clays, which mostly belong to the brick grade. It is possible that there would be found some better clays by increased development of the clay resources.
Pennsylvania. The state exhibit was well arranged, and it showed that good judgment was used in its arrangement. Several forms showed the clays which they are using for their products. Some are giving the analysis, shrinkage, and other data. Several good samples of kaolins were exhibited. The Brandywine Summit Kaolin & Feldspar Co., of Philadelphia, showed not only samples of its feldspar, but also of a kaolin. The Graham Kaolin Co., of Avondale, had good samples of its fairly plastic kaolin. The fire clay miners exhibit fireclays, crude and calcined. The Cambria Fire Brick Co., of Figet, Dixon Woods & Co., of Pittsburg, and the Harbison-Walker Refractories Co., also of Pittsburg, were most prominent. The localities of several mines were not always given. The clays shown by the Mayer Pottery Co. and the Beaver Falls Art Tile Co., both of Beaver Falls, have already been described under the heading of educational exhibits.
Stoneware clay, of New Brighton, was represented by the exhibit of the Sherwood Bros. Potteries Co., of New Brighton.
South Carolina. The only exhibitor of clay was the Peerless Clay Co., of Langley, which showed kaolin in lump form, with no data whatever, while even the name of the exhibitor was difficult to find.
Tennessee. The clay resources of Tennessee have a great future. We learn that many counties possess good clays, and that Henry County is the most prominent, and the heaviest shipper. We not only found good clays from this county, from several localities, in the state exhibit, but the individual exhibit of I. Mandle, of St. Louis, Mo., in the Clay Industries Exhibit, was also evidence of the uses to which Tennessee clays can be put.
In a neat circular this exhibitor gave the analyses of all his clays on exhibition. The various articles from the principal pottery centers are sure evidence that American ball clays are taking the place of the imported ones, and that Tennessee ball clays are leading in that respect.
Texas. Although the clay industry of this state is rather limited, the Geological Survey has taken quite a lot of trouble to get a good exhibit of the clay resources. Texas appears to be, according to these samples, a state rich in the better grades of clay. We found many good kaolins, also stoneware and fire clay samples. Special mention should be made of the excellent arrangement of the samples exhibited, with burnt trials and shrinkage data.
Utah. The clay resources are rather undeveloped as yet. The Utah Fire Clay Co. showed samples of good fire clay, while Millard County and Mr. E. Kendle, of Lehi, exhibited some kaolin samples.
Virginia. The clays exhibited by the state showed, that while some are of apparently good quality, there has been no effort made to exploit them to any extent. J. C. Kennie, of Charlottesville, exhibited some samples of kaolin and quartz, while the Pinchbeck Mine presented samples of feldspar.
Washington. Several counties showed clays which are of good texture. The clays used by Seattle manufacturers show very good products.
Wisconsin. The clays of this state are very interesting. We found the white kaolins of Hersey, Baldwin and Glenwood which deserve special mention. The Hersey deposits have been worked for several years, and the products were shown in crude and washed samples.
We found also samples of the clays used in the manufacture of earthenware pottery at Edgerton.
Wausau appears to have an extensive deposit of quartz and feldspar. The Wausau Quartz Co. had exhibited samples of quartz in different grades and sizes, and S. Weidman, of Madison, exhibited samples of Wausau feldspar. No analysis of the material was given.
Wyoming. This state is like the other western states, quite undeveloped as far as the clay resources are concerned. From personal investigation we know that there are several good fire clay and stoneware clay deposits, but nothing is shown. The only exception was made by G. Fox, of Laramie, who exhibited a well selected sample of Albany County kaolin.
This closes the review of the United States. The states which are not mentioned have no clay displays of any kind. It is to be regretted that states like Indiana, and Florida, whose clay resources are good, had made no attempt to exhibit samples of their clays.
Venezuela. Venezuela had exhibited many good samples of clay in the Forestry, Fish and Game Building. The government exhibit contained several specimens of clay from different localities. The kaolin from Margarita was a good sample, while the clay from Puesto Colon was a good brick clay.
It has been stated that the St. Louis Exposition would be an exposition at which the processes of manufacture would be shown to a larger extent than at any former exposition. The clayworking machinery, however, made a deplorable exception to this rule. With one single exception, we did not find any of the numerous firms who are manufacturing clayworking machinery with machines in actual operation. The exception was the working exhibit installed in the Weller Pottery exhibit by the Patterson Foundry & Machinery Co., of East Liverpool Ohio, consisting in a miniature pottery machinery outfit. The only brick machine, but not in operation, was installed in the Machinery Building, and was exhibited by the Reliance Machine and Tool Works, of St. Louis, while the Williams Patent Crusher and Pulverizer Co., of St. Louis, exhibited a Williams Pulverizer in the Clay Industries Exhibit. We found further in the same section the American Clayworking Machinery Co., of Bucyrus, Ohio, who had a large working model of their auger machine and represses, with cutting table. The same firm showed also a complete line of manufactured products made by its machinery, which collection was a credit to the firm. Other machine people who had small working models were: The Fernholtz Brick Machinery Co., of St. Louis; the C. W. Raymond Co., of Dayton, O.; and the Scott Mfg. Co., of Keokuk, Iowa, which were all located in the Clay Industries Exhibit.
Kilns and Muffle Furnaces.
China. The Chinese Government showed a wood model of a pottery from the Swatow district, in which the square kiln is the essential feature. It illustrated more the typical kind of factory than the details of manufacture.
Germany. In the German section, in the Electricity Building, we found a 1:10 scale drawing, with details of a three story round porcelain kiln as in use by the Royal Porcelain Factory of Berlin.
United States. We found in the Clay Industries Exhibit a model of a continuous kiln exhibited by Carl Cebula, of St. Louis. The Weller Pottery, of Zanesville, Ohio, had a small pottery kiln, but not in operation. Mitchell Firebrick Co., of St. Louis, had erected part of a small size down draft kiln, illustrating the use of their fire brick material for kiln building purposes.
In testing appliances we found several exhibitors. The Braun Co., of Los Angeles, showed several of its test muffles in operation. The Pelton & Crane Co., of Detroit, Mich., had an electric muffle furnace in operation, and Charles Engelhard, of New York, exhibited the Heraeus platinum foil electric muffle furnace, in two styles.
England. Henry Watkins, of Burslem, had a complete set of his heat recorders on exhibition. These recorders are simply blocks of very refractory clay, with five circular recesses sunk into the top. In these recesses are placed little tablets of fusible material, of definite composition and melting point. These slabs are placed in the kiln and are not removed nor examined until after the kiln is drawn. The main objection to these recorders is that they cannot be examined while the kiln is burning, and only record the actual heat of the burnt kiln.
Germany. The Royal Berlin Porcelain Factory exhibited several slabs with unburnt and burnt Seger cones, which range from cone 022 to cone 36. Hartmann & Braun, of Frankfort, o. Main, and Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, showed several styles of pyrometers on the Le Chatelier principle, and a self recording instrument on this principle attracted special attention.
United States. In the Clay Industries Exhibit we found Charles Engelhard, of New York, showing a full line of his Heraeus Le Chatelier pyrometers, who also had several of these instruments at the U. S. Geological Survey Coal Testing Plant, the Pennsylvania Locomotive Testing Plant, and other places on the grounds, in actual operation.
Ernest Mayer, of Beaver Falls, Pa., showed unburnt and burnt Seger cones of his own make, which are used in his pottery kilns.
Ceramic Oxides, Over and Underglaze Colors.
It was gratifying to observe that in this line of ceramic materials the principal countries were well represented, and in every case the best firms had made exhibits.
France. France was represented by Lacroix & Co., and Poulenc Freres, both of Paris, with a full line of oxides and colors.
Germany. W. Perkiewicz, of Ludwigsberg, illustrated in a neat exhibit his patented process of obtaining good red brick without the use of pigments or engobes.
Great Britain. Wegner Ltd., of Stoke upon Trent, had a well arranged display of oxides, over and under glaze colors, also glazes for pottery and enameled bricks.
United States. The Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., of New York, showed in part of their exhibit the ceramic colors for which they are so well known. W. Hasburg, of Chicago, had a good display of his Roman gold for pottery decorating, with patent celluloid covering. The Ricketson Mortar Color Co., of Milwaukee, Wis., had a nice exhibit of the different stains used for brick mortars in the Clay Industries Exhibit.
Resume on Part III.
Inasmuch as the clay deposits are the most essential features of the ceramic industry, we are of the opinion that there has not been shown enough intelligence by exhibitors in attracting that interest in the visiting public of an exposition, which is essential to the further establishment and advance of the clayworking industries.
While many exhibitors of finished products showed a specimen of their clay—in some cases only as big as a mail sample—they did not give any data or illustrations as to what process and system of mining and mixing has been employed.
The geological surveys of the different states have shown that they have the interest of the clayworker well at heart, and if all clay producing states would publish reports in the thorough manner of some of the recent state publications, the clayworker and the public at large would be greatly benefitted. A published report, which shows that the survey has no actual knowledge of technical clayworking, might just as well not been published at all, as it will only create false impressions so far as the clay resources are concerned.
The exhibits of the foreign countries were good, taken into consideration that clays as an export article do not come into much competition. The English exhibit in that respect could have been better arranged, but inasmuch as the importation of English clays in this country is falling off, the interest taken in the exhibit was not very large. Japan made a good display, and it was as thorough an exhibit as any foreign country would want to make.
The few individual clay dealers who made exhibits of their different materials, did make a good impression as far as the technical problems of their work are concerned.
That clay specimens will be found at future expositions goes without saying, and taught by recent demonstrations, we would suggest to future exhibitors to bear in mind that a sample of clay, no matter how good it might be, is of no value to an investigating public, if it is not accompanied by a complete or rational analysis, a piece of the burnt material, preferable at several different temperatures, and if possible other data in regard to shrinkage, plasticity and other essential features, which would indicate the value of the deposit.
If some of the magnificent displays of gold, silver, copper and other ores from the different countries and states had not been labeled in such thorough manner, with their approximate value and other data, their magnitude would have been lost, and the results of those magnificent exhibits would have been reduced to a feeling of lost time and value, and a waste of unappreciated efforts. To some extent we observed this same feeling when studying the clay resources of the world at the St. Louis Exposition.
In the departments of machinery, kilns, pyrometers, ceramic chemicals and colors the exhibits, with the exception of the pyrometer exhibits, were few and far between. It was rather a pity that exhibits of this nature are always more or less erratic, as very good and intelligent exhibits could be arranged in a simple manner. The French exhibit of Poulenc Freres, of Paris, was a good illustration of what could be done in that respect.
Part IV: Building Ceramics
In this section we will endeavor to give a brief description of the ceramic products which belong to the building class. In doing so we will separate the plain from the decorative grades, and make a special heading for each part. It will be appreciated that it is rather hard to judge the coarser grades of the ceramic industry, inasmuch as in many instances we only find a few selected bricks, drain tile, sewer pipe or roofing tiles. In such cases we can only mention the fact that the material was exhibited. Unless otherwise mentioned, all exhibits were located in the Mines and Metallurgy Building.
A. Building Brick, Paring Brick, Sewer Pipe and Roofing Tile.
Argentine. De Filippi Longhi & Co., of Buenos Ayres, exhibited pressed bricks which were of good quality, and must be considered as specimens used in that city for building purposes.
Brazil. In the Brazil Pavilion, located in the court of the Varied Industries Building, we found an exceptionally good exhibit, for a foreign country, of the common grades of the clayworking industry.
Several good red pressed bricks were shown by different firms from Paulo, Amazonas and Parana. Sewer pipe and drain tiles were also exhibited. Paving brick were shown by Estevo & Co., of Minas Geraes. We also found good roofing tiles of the interlocking system.
Bulgaria. Izida Cie., of Sofia, showed some fine pressed, cream colored brick, and salt glazed sewer pipe.
Great Britain. Doulton & Co., of London, showed in the Liberal Arts Building several excellent, large sizes of salt glazed sewer pipes in connection with their chemical stoneware exhibit.
Mexico. Dry pressed, repressed, and hand made brick were exhibited by Mexico in great varieties.
Siam. In the Manufacturers’ Building, McLean & Co., of Bangkok, showed good, pressed, red and buff bricks, which were machine made.
U. S. of America. The states are taken alphabetically.
Alabama. The Graves Brick Co., of Birmingham, exhibited a good quality of pressed brick, while the Southern Sewerpipe Co., also of Birmingham, showed several sizes of nearly vitrified sewer pipe of a dark color. The Coaldale Brick Co., of Coaldale, had several specimens of vitrified paving blocks.
Arizona. Two firms had exhibited their brick products, the Mansfield Pressed Brick & Terra Cotta Co., of Mansfield, and the Clark Pressed Brick Co., of Malvern. The products were of good quality.
California. In order to show the building materials of the state an arch was erected in which the different building materials, found in the state, were used. Granite, lime and sand stone, pressed brick and terra cotta were well represented. Some good shades of white and colored brick were shown. We are unable to give proper credit to the various exhibitors, as the labeling of this exhibit was very poor. Many of the counties mentioned under raw materials had also bricks exhibited, which were manufactured from the clay samples shown.
Colorado. In show cases, neatly arranged, we found several brick products. The Golden Pressed Brick Co. of Denver, had samples of different colors and shades of their bricks. The Cresta Clay Co., of Boulder, had good samples of red bricks.
Georgia. The Bibb Brick Co. was the only exhibitor with a few samples of bricks in the Clay Industries Exhibit.
Illinois. The Purington Paving Brick Co., of Galesburg, and the Alton Paving & Brick Co. were both exhibitors in the Clay Industries section. Rock faced pavers, neatly laid in colored mortar, formed the walls of these exhibits. In the state exhibit we found the Illinois Hydraulic Press Brick Co., of Collinsville, the Monmouth Mining & Milling Co., of Monmouth, with brick and sewer pipe samples.
The National Fire Proofing Co., of Chicago, exhibited a steel frame section with fire proof construction, in the Manufacturers’ Building.
Iowa. This state had not only many exhibitors of common clay products in the Mines Building, but also a collective ceramic exhibit in the Manufacturers’ Building. The collective exhibit was better arranged for the single exhibitor. In the state exhibit the bricks were used for making panels, which served as walls for the exhibit. The Platt Pressed Brick Co., of Van Meter, showed excellent samples of its brick, while the Mason City Brick Co., of Mason City, had building brick and drain tile. The Iowa Brick Mfg. Co., of Des Moines, exhibited paving brick and sewer pipe. The leading Iowa manufacturers were represented in both exhibits.
Kansas. The brick exhibits of this state were well arranged, and the efforts made to make a representative exhibit of the clay industry of the state, even if they were only manufacturing the coarser grades of ware, were very successful. Some twenty brick concerns had samples of their products, ranging from a good red brick to a paving brick. In the center of the exhibit in the back ground, we found a mantel of ornamental brick made by the Coffeyville Vitrified Brick and Tile Co., of Coffeyville, which was an excellent piece of work.
Kentucky. Part of the wall around the state exhibit was built of brick and sewer pipe, products of different factories of the state. F. Bannon & Son, of Louisville, made an excellent exhibit of sewer pipe and paving brick. The Hydraulic Brick Co., of Louisville, showed very good pressed bricks. Special mention is to be made of a draintile made by hand in 1850, which was exhibited by W. T. Keates, of Owensboro.
Louisiana and Minnesota. These two states had only a small exhibit of their clay products. The Twin City Pressed Brick Co., of St. Paul, showed good bricks, while the Red Wing Sewer Pipe Co., of Red Wing, Minn., had samples of good sewer pipe.
Maryland. The brick industry of Maryland was well represented in the state exhibit. The leading manufacturers had sent a good collection of their products. The exhibits were well arranged and properly labeled. The Baltimore Brick Co., of Baltimore, presented good pressed bricks, while the Edwin Bennett Roofing Tile Co., also of Baltimore, showed good roofing tiles.
Missouri. In the state exhibit we found a small pavilion which represented the clay products of the state. The base was of pressed brick, in different colors, from the Hydraulic Press Brick Co.; the columns, caps and coping were terra cotta made by the Winkle Terra Cotta Co., and the roofing tiles were furnished by the Mound City Roofing Tile Co., all of St. Louis.
As individual exhibitors in pressed brick, the exhibit of the Hydraulic Press Brick Co., of St. Louis, was the most elaborate and the best exhibit in the brick line. In the center of the Clay Industries Exhibit we find a two-story brick pavilion, in the renaissance style, of architecture. The main kind of brick used is of an iron speckled brown color, the trimmings are light buff and gray. Enameled bricks are used in a very moderate but effective manner. The steps leading into the pavilion are of mottled gray, hard burned brick, with rounded corners, which made an excellent material for that purpose. On the inside we found the ornamental features of pressed brick in four mantels, each different in design and color. An exhibit like this illustrates the possibilities of modern brick architecture. It is a credit to the firm which undertook the task of educating the people to the advantages of brick as a building material, effective in design, and harmonious in color.
The sewer pipe industry of the state was represented by the Evens & Howard Fire Brick Mfg. Co., and the Laclede Fire Brick Co., both of St. Louis.
The first firm had a full line of sewer pipe exhibited in the Clay Industries Exhibit, while a neat pavilion with sewer pipe columns and fire brick walls was shown in the Manufacturers’ Building.
The Mound City Roofing Tile Co. had also a pavilion in the Clay Industries Exhibit showing the different styles of their tiles.
Montana and Nebraska. The former state only showed bricks from one firm, while the latter had several exhibits of good building bricks.
New Jersey. Quite a few of the leading brick manufacturers had made exhibits. The Atlantic Brick Co., of May’s Landing, exhibited excellent front brick, while the Kingsland Brick Co., of Kingsland, had exhibited building and paving bricks.
New York. The clay industries of Alfred were represented by a pavilion in the state exhibit, in which the brick pillars were made of brick from the Alfred Clay Co., while the roofing tiles were made by the Celadon Roofing Tile Co. Among the other exhibitors of brick we will mention the Jamestown Shale Paving Brick Co., of Jamestown, and the New York Hydraulic Brick Co., of Canandaigua.
North Carolina. The state exhibit showed a few samples of the brick manufactured by the Asheville Brick & Tile Co, of Ashville, and the Caraleigh Brick Co., of Raleigh, which were of fairly good quality considering the resources of high grade clays in the state.
North Dakota. The Dickinson Fire and Pressed Brick Co., of Dickinson, had made a very good exhibit of the bricks manufactured from North Dakota clays. Several counties also showed bricks manufactured in their section, without giving the names of the manufacturers. These exhibits showed the possibilities of the state in the building brick line, which is yet quite in its infancy.
Ohio. The brick industry of the state was well represented in the Clay Industries Exhibit. We found several panels of different colors and different makes. The Columbus Brick and Terra Cotta Co., of Union Furnace, the Cleveland Hydraulic Pressed Brick Co., of Cleveland, and others, had made good exhibits, in the building brick line, while in the paving brick branch we find the well-known Canton paver, the Metropolitan, as well as brands from the Hocking Valley.
A large 36-inch sewer pipe of the American Sewer-pipe Co., of Toronto, showed the product of that line.
The Cincinnati Roofing Tile Co., of Cincinnati, and the Akron Roofing Tile Co., of Akron, exhibited samples of their products.
Oklahoma and Tennessee. Several pressed brick concerns of the first state had made exhibits, which show that the territory has many opportunities for the building line, while Tennessee showed by a well-arranged exhibit, that the building brick and the sewer pipe business is well developed. The Knoxville Brick Co., of Knoxville, and the W. G. Bush Brick Co., of Henry Co., showed good products.
Pennsylvania. The Kittanning Fire Clay Co. was well represented in both the state and the Clay Industries Exhibits. We also found the Montello Brick Co. with some very good samples of building brick.
Texas. The brick manufacturers showed a full line of their products, and judging from the different grades, the state is well supplied as far as bricks are concerned. The Thurber Brick Works, of Thurber, the Gainesville Pressed Brick Co., of Gainesville, and many others had made good exhibits.
Virginia. A fairly good exhibit was made by this state. S. G. Allen, of Front Royal, showed good samples of vitrified brick. Other concerns are the Washington Hydraulic Pressed Brick Co., of Alexandria, and the Richlands Pressed Brick Co., of Richlands.
Washington. For a Pacific coast state, Washington made a good exhibit of bricks and sewer pipe. The Renton Clay Co., of Seattle, and the Washington Brick Co., of Washington, were well represented with different lines of their products.
Wisconsin. Not very many firms were represented in the state exhibit. Few firms showed drain tile, while the Menomonie Hydraulic Pressed Brick Co., of Menomonie, exhibited good samples of their brick. Wm. Finnegan, of Green Bay, showed also good samples of building brick.
Wyoming. We find only one exhibitor in this state, the Casper Pressed Brick Co., of Casper.
B. Decorative Building Products.
Enameled Bricks, Terra Cotta, Encaustic Tiles and Structural Faience.
Under this class we find more individual exhibitors with more elaborate exhibits than under the last. The foreigners were also better represented in this class, and while the products differ quite considerably from our own makes, we can form a good idea as to the value of the exhibits.
Argentine. Felix Pedretti & Sons, and B. Spenedi & Bros., both of Buenos Ayres, showed good specimens of mosaic floor tiles. Glazed wall tiles are shown, which are poor as far as the body is concerned, but good in effect, and good soft glazes.
Austria. In the state building we found mantels in glazed tile and terra cotta, which were made by the Rakonitz Chamotte Mfg. Co., of Rakonitz. The design for these pieces was made by the Art School of Prague. The harmony of colors and the light application of modeling has produced excellent effects. Friedrich Goldschneider, of Vienna, exhibited excellent terra cotta figures in the Manufacturers’ Building.
Belgium. In the Belgium Pavilion we found two well-known firms exhibiting all kinds of tiles. Boch Freres, of La Louviere, had four panels set with 10×3 inch tiles, which are over and under glazed in design. Vitrified tiles were also shown, plain and colored.
The Societe Anonyme des Products Ceramiques, of Chimay, of Forges lez Chimay, had a well arranged exhibit of inlaid vitrified floor tiles. Helman, of Brussels, exhibited large panels of decorative tiles, a design of Spring, which showed excellent taste in colors.
France. In the Manufacturing Building we found the Societe des Produits Ceramiques et Refractaires, of Boulogne sur Mer, which had a very good exhibit of vitrified tiles in single and encaustic design. We also found that the crystalline glazes are used by this firm for decorative purposes on tiles.
Jules Loebnitz, of Paris, exhibited a terra cotta mantel, also tiles which were very strong in relief, but the whole exhibit showed lack of harmony between design and decoration.
Renè Sachot, of Montereaun, exhibited a terra cotta mantel, with lustre glaze finish, and while the technical part could be judged correct, the decorative effect is very poor.
Alphonse Hanne, of L’Isle Adam, had the best exhibit in terra cotta figures, which were decorated in color in exact reproduction of life, and the effects obtained were excellent.
Of the other exhibitors we will mention, Hache & Co., of Vierzon, and Janin Frères & Guerineau, of Paris, who exhibited both large tiles and terra cotta figures.
Germany. In the Mines Building we found a very good exhibit of tiles by the A. G. Norddeutsche Steingutfabrik, of Grohn, near Bremen. The exhibit was arranged in pyramidal shape, the tiles were set with borders, each field representing some well-known locality. The color effects were very good, and the tiles were technically perfect.
In the Varied Industries Building we found Villeroy and Boch, of Mettlach, who had furnished the tiles and terra cotta walls of the room in which the ceramic products are exhibited. The glazed terra cotta was of a blue to blue green effect, and the decorative designs were correct in every respect. In tiles we found the same effect, well in harmony with the balance of the decorations.
Wessel’s Wand Platten Fabrik, of Bonn, furnished tiles in mottled and crystalline glazed effects, which were distributed throughout the German section for wall decorations. The effects were good.
We found also eight large panels of the Waechterbacher Steingutfabrik, of Schlierbach, in different glazed effects, which were excellent.
The Marienberger Mosaikplatten Fabrik, of Marienberg, exhibited its products in two places, and they were used to illustrate the German art of interior decoration. The Gail’sche Dampfziegelei, of Giessen, exhibited on the same principle a mantel of enameled brick, which was good in design and color.
In this connection we will also mention the Tonwerke Kandern, of Kandern, who had exhibited terra cotta mantels in color designs, which were executed according to the design of Prof. Max Laeuger, of Karlsruhe. The main exhibit of this German art potter we will review under the head of pottery.
Great Britain. In the Varied Industries Building we found the tile and terra cotta exhibits of the English firms. The best exhibit in this line was from Minton, Hollins & Co., Ltd., of Stoke-upon-Trent, who exhibited an elaborate terra cotta fountain, in green glazed terra cotta, with glazed tile floors. The whole was well designed, and well executed. The tile panels exhibited by the same firms were of the same good character.
Sherwin & Cotton, of Staffordshire, exhibited tiles and glazed bricks for interior decoration. The exhibits of A. Meakin, Ltd., of Tunstall, and of G. Wooloscroft & Son, Ltd., of Staffordshire, were small, and some of their tiles were badly crazed.
The Pilkington Tile Co. exhibited some very nice tile panels in the Art Palace.
In the application of tiles for practical purposes we like to call attention to a chart or map exhibit of the railroad system of the North Eastern Railway, in the Transportation Building. We find here a six foot square frame, with 6″x6″ white glazed tiles on which the map of this railway system was painted. We presume that such maps are used in the various stations along the lines of this railroad. The name of the firm which executed this map could not be obtained.
Italy. Graziano Appiani, of Treviso, was the only exhibitor of that country in tile, located in the Varied Industries Building. The exhibit was well arranged, and the variety of the tiles shown was great. The extreme thinness of some of the floor tiles, which were perfectly straight, was remarkable. We found also mosaic tiles in various colors, and the exhibit was technically perfect.
Cellai & Dini, of Florence, exhibited some large terra cotta figures, which were excellent in execution.
Mexico. In the terra cotta line we found some excellent work done by M. R. Calderon, of Toluca, exhibited in large decorated terra cotta vases, and by Heraclio Farias, of Gaudalajara, who sketched Mexican life in clay relief.
Netherlands. The Dutch tile manufacturers were well represented, and the application of tiles for interior decoration is well advanced in that country. The largest tile scene of the whole exposition we found in the exhibit of the Delft’sche Aardewerk Fabrik, “De Porceleyne Fles,” formerly Joost Thooft & Labouchere, of Delft. It is executed in Delft blue and represents some historical Dutch Oil painting. We found also smaller tile paintings, which fully illustrate the large demand for that class of work for interior decoration. In the same exhibit we found a vitrified biscuit body which is used by the firm for exterior terra cotta purposes, and which, when fired with vitrified colors, makes an excellent building material.
The Royal Manufactory of Porcelain and Pottery, “Rozenburg,” of the Hague, exhibited also large tile frames. The paintings are in different colors, and the effects are true reproductions of oil paintings. Some very good results were obtained with Rembrand light effects.
The largest exhibit of small tiles was made by Gebr. Tichelaar, of Makkum. These tiles are all decorated in plain blue or sepia colors, and produce good effects.
Of the other exhibitors who showed good tiles in decorative design are to be mentioned: Wed. N. S. A. Brandtjes & Co., of Purmerend, and Plateelbakkery Delft, of Hilversum.
Persia. Persia showed some old tiles in turquoise blue, which, however, were more relics than recent products.
United States. Taking into consideration the many exhibitors in this class, not only as individual but also as state exhibitors, we will take the firms, by states, in alphabetical order.
California. In the state exhibit we found nearly all exhibitors. Gladding, McBean & Co., of Lincoln, had terra cotta in the state arch; they also exhibited pieces of their various shades of terra cotta; N. Clark & Son, and the Steiger Pottery & Terra Cotta Co., both of San Francisco, also exhibited a few pieces of their products. While this Western terra cotta is apparently not as good as the Eastern goods, it must be admitted that the prospects are bright for reaching a good quality of terra cotta in the Coast states. The Pacific Art Tile Co., of Los Angeles, exhibited panels of glazed and vitrified tiles, which are good in quality.
Connecticut. The Hartford Faience Co., of Hartford, exhibited in the Clay Industries Exhibit, tiles and a terra cotta mantel which was a credit to the firm. The “Sun Worshippers” will long be remembered as an execution in clay which shows the possibilities of plastic relief in matt glaze effects.
Illinois. One of the best exhibits in glazed terra cotta was made by the North Western Terra Cotta Co., of Chicago, with a pavilion in the center of the Clay Industries Exhibit, in white enameled terra cotta, with a brown glazed base, and matt green dome, the whole representing an architectural feature, which is artistically in advance of anything shown, and technically perfect. The work was designed by Mr. Fritz Wagner, Secretary of the Company, and the technical execution was in the hands of Mr. A. F. Hottinger.
Three groups of figures surmounted each corner, and an eagle with spread wings completed the top of the dome. In the interior we find four panels in matt glaze effects. The dome is in matt sky blue, with golden stars, and the whole is a splendid piece of work. The same firm has two red flashed columns, at one of the entrances of the Clay Industries Exhibit, which showed the possibilities of that class of work for terra cotta purposes. We also found a full line of terra cotta samples illustrating the different colors and imitations of stone which the firm puts on the market.
The American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co., of Chicago, exhibited in the Mines Building large terra cotta vases, in green matt finish. A terra cotta panel with a landscape in vitrified colors produced an excellent effect.
The Tiffany Enameled Brick Co., of Momence, had erected a square pavilion which was built entirely of its enameled products. The general style was white and blue, using matt glazed brick, which produced an excellent effect. A case containing all shapes and styles of brick gave an idea regarding the different products the firm is manufacturing.
Kentucky. The terra cotta arch erected by the state, made from Kentucky clays, showed the possibilities of the clay resources, and it will only be a short time when terra cotta will be manufactured extensively in the state.
The Cambridge Tile Co., of Covington, had erected a neat, instructive exhibit. The walls were white, with colored borders, while the floor was in part white and vitrified, and in part consisting of mosaic tiles. The bathroom at one end of the exhibit fully illustrated the use of this class of material for bathroom purposes. As a feature of the exhibit is to be mentioned an Indian head in mosaic, which was a perfect piece of work.
Maryland. Andrew Ramsey, of Mount Savage, exhibited different panels in the state exhibit of good enameled bricks.
Massachusetts. The Grueby Faience Co., of Boston, exhibited in the Varied Industries Building, and showed the application of faience for building purposes. While it is, of course, to the advantage of firms engaged in that line of work to adhere to their original class of products, faience, the recent departure of this firm from pottery to structural material can only be indirectly classified as structural faience while, in fact, the product is glazed terra cotta.
Grueby showed a line of work which was executed for the New York Subway. It is heavily decorated in matt glazed colors, and while the effects on single pieces are good, the harmony, on the whole, is sometimes wanting altogether. In mantel work, the designs and decorations are more in harmony with the general output of the plant. A light green, glazed, perforated railing encloses the exhibit, which makes a good impression from a distance.
Missouri. The Hydraulic Pressed Brick Co., of St. Louis, showed in its pavilion, already described, different classes of enameled and glazed brick. They have a green glazed brick in which the iron has produced a mottled effect, which is very pleasing.
The Winkle Terra Cotta Co., of St. Louis, had a splendid exhibit in the Manufacturers’ Building, which must be considered as one of the best exhibits in the terra cotta line. It is conventional in design, with figures symbolizing Sculpture, Architecture, Chemistry and Mining, while the dome is surmounted by a figure representing Atlas bearing the world. It is monotone in color, which represents Bedford stone, in vitrified slip finish. The pavilion is surrounded by a balustrade of gray speckled terra cotta, with heraldic lions as entrance posts. The floor of the whole exhibit consists of vitrified gray and white tiles, with a red border. The design of this pavilion was made by Mr. Ernest A. Maddison, chief draftsman. We found also samples of glazed terra cotta in different colors and finish. A terra cotta column, made in one piece, measuring eight feet in height, gives an idea of the ability of the firm to master technical problems.
The St. Louis Terra Cotta Co., of St. Louis, furnished one of the entrances to the Clay Industries Exhibit in a pair of cream colored columns. The shafts are fluted and have ornamental caps. The color is very uniform, and the technical execution is very creditable.
New Jersey. The Blue Ridge Enameled Brick Co., of Newark, had made a very nice display of its products. A court surrounded with a wall in which everything is of enameled brick, presented an excellent example as to the uses of these products. The glaze finish of the product is perfect, and while mostly in bright finish, samples of matt glazed bricks were also shown. A large case exhibiting all colors and shapes made by the firm forms the back ground of the exhibit.
Sayre & Fisher, of Sayreville, had exhibited their enameled bricks in one of the panels of the railing of the Clay Industries Exhibit, while the American Enameled Brick Co., of South River, furnished the base, in enameled brick, for terra cotta columns from the South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., of South Amboy.
The Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., of Rocky Hill, has furnished the columns for the main entrance of the Clay Industries Exhibit. The design and finish are good, and the glazed surface is a white dull matt of pleasing effect.
The Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Co., of Perth Amboy, had furnished two columns for another entrance of the Clay Industries Exhibit. The columns are sandblasted, producing a dull surface with rough and pitty imperfections. The mechanical execution of the columns is poor, as the two pieces of the shaft do not fit together.
The Trent Tile Co., of Trenton, exhibited its product in connection with the sanitary ware exhibit of the Trenton Potteries Co., in the Manufacturers’ Building.
Ohio. In the Clay Industries Exhibit we found in the Ohio section a few tiles made by the American Encaustic Tile Co., of Zanesville, and also a case of tiles made by the Ohio Tile Co., of Hamilton. The tiles used in the Ohio state building were furnished by the Mosaic Tile Co., of Zanesville. In the Varied Industries Building we found a small exhibit representing a mantel in green matt glazed tiles from the American Encaustic Tile Co., of Zanesville, which also showed some tile panels in a dark red, matt glaze.
The Rookwood Pottery Co., of Cincinnati, showed in the Clay Industries Exhibit some mantel effects in matt glazes which are excellent. They also have done work for the New York Subway, which is exhibited in panel work in various colored matt glazes.
Pennsylvania. The exhibit of tiles of the Beaver Falls Art Tile Co., of Beaver Falls, and of the Star Encaustic Tile Co., of Pittsburg, have already been reviewed under the head of Educational Exhibits.
Wm. Galloway, of Philadelphia, had a nice line of garden vases in different terra cotta colors in the Horticulture Building.
Resume of Part IV.
The exhibits of the building materials suggest many things. In the building, paving brick, sewer pipe and roofing tile branches we find no foreign competition, and consequently we have no comparative exhibits to judge even the merits of our own products in comparison with foreign wares. We can judge the national exhibits in regard to each other and come to the conclusion that, taking in consideration the extensiveness of this branch of ceramics, the number of representative exhibits is very small. Those firms who did spend energy and money in order to make a showing had splendid exhibits, that impressed not only the Americans but the foreign visitors as well.
Of the decorative building products the terra cotta and the structural faience firms made the best showing. Here we also have hardly any foreign competition, and while we find in structural faience a few foreigners, judging from these exhibits we feel assured that we are able to handle the artistic and technical part of that branch in a most satisfactory manner.
In enameled brick we have actual commercial competition, but the Exposition does not show us that part. No foreigner has made any representative exhibit, while the few American exhibitors made an excellent showing.
In encaustic and vitrified tile we meet a very disappointing feature in regard to foreign and national exhibits.
The foreigners made a feeble attempt to show what they were doing, while the American manufacturers, with one creditable exception, the Cambridge Tile Co., of Covington, Ky., did not make as much as a feeble attempt.
We do not include in this class of exhibits the Beaver Falls Art Tile Co., of Beaver Falls, nor the Star Encaustic Co., of Pittsburg, who made very good exhibits, but more of an educational character than showing the commercial side of the question. It cannot be said that the exhibit of the American Encaustic Tile Co., of Zanesville, was a credit to the largest tile manufacturers of this country.
Taking all branches together the exhibits were national in character, and as such we could obtain a good comparison of the few exhibitors. We find upon close examination that as a rule the Western manufacturer produces a better quality of goods than his Eastern competitor.
Part V: Refractory Ceramics
Refractory ceramics at the St. Louis Fair were essentially national rather than international in character. The few countries which had exhibited fire clay products did not show the same in very important places, and even among the national manufacturers we missed the most important one.
China. The Chinese Engineering & Mining Co., of Tientsin, showed two grades of handmade fire brick. In a recent test it has been proven that these bricks were of good quality, and we presume that they are used extensively for pottery kilns in that country.
Hungary. The Magnesite Co., Ltd., of Budapest, showed a full line of magnesite, in lump and in the calcined form, as well as different shapes of brick made from the same. In the Clay Industries Exhibit we found the same firm represented through their American Agent, Theo. Pfisterer, of New York.
United States. The few exhibitors are taken by states.
Colorado. The Denver Fire Clay Co., of Denver, exhibited in various places a full line of its assayer supplies and fire clay goods. The excellent reputation of these assayer’s goods is supported by the actual tests which were made in the Metallurgical Building, in which the ores were tested from the stamp and concentration mills on the grounds.
Illinois. The Argillo Fire Brick Co., of Carbon Cliffs, exhibited a few samples of its bricks. These brick appear to be a medium grade fire brick of good appearance.
Kentucky. This state had made an excellent showing in the fire clay line. Not only did we find good exhibits in the state section, but in the Clay Industries section also we found well-arranged exhibits. The Louisville Fire Brick Co., of Louisville, had made a good representation. The manufactured products consist in large blocks of locomotive lining, stove tiles, cupola lining, and fire bricks. The Ashland Fire Brick Co., of Ashland, and the Tygart Fire Brick Co., of Fullerton, had similar exhibits, but not as complete. In the state exhibit we found also represented the Olive Hill Fire Brick Co., of Olive Hill.
Maryland. The fire clay manufacturers of this state were well represented in the state exhibit. The Maryland fire clays have a good reputation, and the products show up well. The Baltimore Retort & Fire Brick Co., of Baltimore, showed a good line of handmade brick, and also a small gas retort and accessories. The Union Mining Co., of Mount Savage, and the Mt. Savage Fire Brick Co., of Frostburg, exhibited a good line of high grade fire brick. The Green Hill Fire Brick Co., of Northeast, and Gardner Bros., of Ellerslie, are both manufacturing a good grade of brick and stove linings.
Massachusetts. The Presbery Fire Brick Co., of Taunton, had a small but good exhibit of fire clay goods which apparently are of excellent quality.
Missouri. The Missouri fire brick industry, located principally in the St. Louis district, was well represented, and had made a most complete exhibit of nearly all the leading firms.
The largest exhibit and the most illustrative one was made by the Laclede Fire Brick Co., in the Manufacturers’ Building. It showed the actual installation of two gas benches built in the latest style of gas retort construction. In the Clay Industries Exhibit this firm showed a complete line of all its fire clay products in bricks, linings, and other shapes.
The Parker-Russell Mining & Mfg. Co. had a very neat exhibit in the Clay Industry section. It showed two sizes of gas retorts, and all shapes and sizes of fire clay blocks and fire brick.
The Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co. exhibited a full line of fire brick which are used in gas, zinc and lead smelting works.
The Missouri Fire Brick Co. had erected in the Mining Gulch a full size gas bench.
The Mitchell Fire Brick Co. exhibited a full line of its fire brick, and a special feature of the exhibit was a small kiln shown in half section, illustrating the use of these bricks.
The Mississippi Glass Co. exhibited glass pots in the green and burnt state, also fire brick which are mostly used by the firm in its own glass plants.
The St. Louis Vitrified and Fire Brick Co. also had a nicely-arranged exhibit of fire clay products. We found further, exhibits of the Fulton Fire Brick Co., of Fulton, and the Vandalia Fire Brick Works, of Vandalia.
New Jersey. In the state exhibit we found four firms which had made small fire brick exhibits. J. W. Berry, of Woodridge, the National Pyrogranite Co., of South River, and Henry Maurer & Son, of Maurer, are the best representatives with good products.
Ohio. While none of the exhibitors of this state had made an individual exhibit, the collective exhibit of the state was fairly well representative. The Ohio Valley Clay Mfg. Co., of Steubenville, exhibited a glass pot in the green state, and also tank blocks. The Aetna Fire Brick Co., of Oak Hill, and the Toronto Fire Clay Co., of Toronto, had made good exhibits of their products. The Harbison Walker Co., of Portsmouth, and the Robinson Clay Products Co., of Akron, showed only a few samples of their products. The exhibits might have been labeled better so as to give more intelligent information.
Pennsylvania. Cyrus Borgner, of Philadelphia, had made a nice exhibit in the Clay Industries section. The exhibit included fire brick, tuyere fittings, gas retorts, and blocks. The products presented the appearance of being high grade. In the State exhibit we found several fire clay manufacturers with good exhibits. The Harbison-Walker Refractories Co., of Pittsburg, had a very interesting exhibit; the Dixon Woods Co., of Pittsburg, had a special exhibit in tank blocks. Other exhibitors in the fire brick line were the Westmoreland Fire Brick Co., of Pittsburg, the Delany Fire Brick Co., of Fairchance, and E. E. Mellick, of Retort.
Resume of Part V.
What has been stated in a general way in the resume of part IV applies also to refractory ceramics. The most gratifying feature of the fire clay product exhibits was the fact that we impressed the foreigners, who always had an idea that America did not produce excellent fire clay wares, and that we had to go abroad for our raw materials. It can be stated authoritatively that the St. Louis and the Kentucky fire clay manufacturers created an excellent impression upon our foreign visitors, which is an expression in favor of the high grade qualities of our fire clay products.
Few of the exhibitors showed an instructive exhibit, while the majority only made an exhibit of the different shapes and styles which they were manufacturing.
Part VI: Pottery
Under this heading we will review all exhibits which belong to the fine ceramics. This class is the most international of all, and we found all the leading countries well represented. Inasmuch as the pottery exhibits were located in so many buildings, we will mention in every instance the location of the exhibit.
Argentine. P. Bennedetto & Bros., of Buenos Ayres, exhibited in the Manufacturers’ Building a few earthenware jardinieres with flowing, colored glazes, which produced good effects.
Austria. The pottery industry of Austria was located in the Manufacturers’ Building. Some well-known firms were represented, and while the exhibits were not decorative in finish, the wares exhibited were good.
The Dux Porcelain Works, of Dux, Bohemia, exhibited three grades of products. First, we found porcelain with a gray matt glaze, sometimes decorated with gold. The product was excellent in character and consisted mostly of figures. Further, we found porcelain decorated in a rich cobalt blue color which was applied to vases and trays, and which were very good. The center of the exhibit was an earthenware figure, representing a slave bound to the trunk of a tree. The modeling and finish were excellent.
Riessner, Stellmacher & Kessel, of Turn-Teplitz, Bohemia, had a very good exhibit of Amphora ware. The effects were obtained by an ivory matt glaze, and also by luster application. A large vase was exhibited with a mottled, matt, colored glaze effect in crackled finish and gold decorations.
Carl Fr. Boseck & Co., of Haida, exhibited a line of Alhambra porcelain in red and dark green over glaze colors, with rich gold decorations.
B. Bloch, of Eichwald, Bohemia, had a very decorative line of porcelain and also majolica jardineres and specialties.
Robert Pilz and Franz Doerfl, both of Vienna, showed the products of artistic china painting.
Belgium. In the Belgium State building we found the industrial exhibits of pottery ware. Vermeiren Coche, of Brussels, had several cases of very good porcelain, highly decorated with gold relief. A head in matt crystalline glaze was good, while several plates were shown in different designs. La Ceramique de Forges Co., already mentioned under part IV for tiles, exhibited blue and gray decorated stoneware, which was strictly Flemish in design. Boch Brothers, of La Louviere, exhibited majolica in old Dutch design and stoneware vases with crystalline glaze effects. Helman, of Brussels, had a good Flemish stoneware exhibit, and also some crystalline glaze wares.
Brazil. Several firms exhibited samples of their stone and white ware in the Brazil Pavilion. Some of these products were good in quality, but not very rich in design. R. T. C. Rocha, of Minas Geraes, and J. R. Bastos, of Maranhao, had stoneware displays, while Jos. Wolmann and J. A. Panitz & Irmacos, both of Rio Grande do Sul, exhibited white ware. Vases and specialties made from a red, washed, body, covered with a good soft tin glaze were exhibited by the Society Co-operative, of Parana.
Bulgaria. The Izida Cie., of Sophia, exhibited in the Varied Industries Building a full line of red and yellow stoneware and majolica jardinieres. The yellow ware was effectively decorated with some gold, and the whole exhibit gave a good idea of what this company is able to manufacture for home consumption.
Ceylon. In the Ceylon Pavilion, in a case well arranged, D. B. David, of Galle, exhibited some antique porcelain which was certainly of Chinese origin.
China. In the Liberal Arts Building we found China all by itself. Of modern ceramics we are unable to find much evidence, while historical pottery exhibits were well represented. The Industrial Institute of Peking exhibited a large case with old Chinese porcelain, which was labeled with data of manufacture and prices. Some of these vases had a marked value of $5,000 to $8,000. The Tea and Porcelain Co., of Shanghai, exhibited porcelain of old and recent date. A few vases with Celadon glazes were very remarkable pieces of pottery. Among some of the other exhibitors we will mention Tak Loong, of Canton, who exhibited several dinner sets in true Chinese design.
Denmark. In simple, store like, arrangement we find the ceramic products of Denmark in the Varied Industries Building. “Royal Copenhagen” is an expression which is familiar not only to the ceramic world, but also to the public at large, and it was therefore not astonishing to find the exhibit of the Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Works, of Copenhagen, the center of attraction. This well-known pottery dates as far back as 1760. It was founded by a Frenchman, named Fournier. In 1775 the factory was taken over by the government. It remained government property until 1867, when G. A. Falck bought the pottery from the state. In 1882 an incorporated company under the name of “Aluminia” obtained hold of the pottery and has been operating it ever since. The pottery is therefore royal only in name and not in ownership. The trademark consists of three parallel, wavy lines in blue, under the glaze, with a crown, representing the Sound, the Great and Little Belts, which are the three sea arms of the country.
The exhibit was well arranged with products of the different periods of its existence. We found reproductions of the old blue underglaze fluted porcelain and samples of ware of the time when the Rococo style was much used for porcelain designs. Then we come to the modern Copenhagen ware in high fire under glaze designs, and as specialties crystalline zinc glazes in white and colored effects.
When we consider the high temperature at which Copenhagen porcelain is burned, cone 22, we are astonished at the results obtained, and come to the conclusion that the technical part is perfect. The harmonious combinations of color, the correctness in design, all give the product an impression of perfection which is at once commanding. A large jardiniere, with a water scene and some birds in the foreground, painted by the artistic director, A. Krog, is truly beautiful. In crystalline glazes the results are very good. Zinc crystals are predominating. A new effect, just lately brought out, is a crocodile skin effect in white and blue, which was much admired by ceramists. This effect seems to have been produced by the application of a crystalline glaze over a light-colored glaze.
The Faience Manufactory, Alumina, of Copenhagen, owned and operated by the management of the Royal Copenhagen, exhibited a full line of dinner sets painted in faience colors under the glaze. The effects were sharp and in great contrast to the Copenhagen designs.
P. Ipsens Enke, of Copenhagen, had a good exhibit of red earthenware figures, copies of the famous Danish artist Thorwaldsen, and of ancient Greek pottery. This firm also exhibited pottery in matt green, varied with a pleasing yellow matt.
H. A. Kaehler, of Naestved, exhibited luster glazes, and his oxblood reds were of good quality. It was disappointing to note that his glazes were badly crazed. His matt glazes on stoneware were of a better technical finish. N. Hansen Jacobsen, of Copenhagen, had a small exhibit of masks, made of pottery, which did not find many admirers.
France. The pottery exhibits of France were divided into two parts; the Royal Sevres Manufactory and some amateur potters had exhibited in the French National Pavilion, while the French manufacturers were located in the Manufacturers’ Building.
Of all the exhibits under this heading the Sevres National Manufactory was the best as far as location, surroundings and installation were concerned. In the Northwest wing of the National Pavilion we found two rooms devoted to these exhibits. In Sevres we have another well-known old pottery. In 1740 Dubois started a pottery at Vincennes, which was the initial point of the Royal Porcelain Manufactory of France. This title was authorized in 1753 by King Louis XV, who at that time owned one-third interest in the business. In 1750 the pottery was moved to Sevres, and in 1760 the king became sole owner. After this period the state government has had more or less charge of its affairs, and it has been a government factory ever since. Sevres has produced some of the best porcelains made, and on its technical staff have served ceramists whose names are familiar the world over. The trademark of Sevres is an underglaze oval ring, with the letter S and the date of the year of manufacture. When the mark is cut through, it indicates that the piece was not decorated at Sevres. The productions of Sevres are identified more with the artistic than with the commercial side, and the result is that Sevres can produce pieces of pottery which would be prohibitive from the standpoint of a commercial concern.
In the French National pavilion was shown a rare collection of pottery, and while it cannot be said that there was shown something distinctly new, it must be admitted that the technical art was more complete than at former expositions. One part of the exhibit consisted of large vases with flower and bird designs, which were good in shape and finish. In the middle of this group we found a large vase, about seven feet high, with a brown glaze in which there were unaccountable, large and small blue zinc crystals. This piece made a very good impression, and were it not for the defect of crazing, we could pronounce this vase excellent. In the technology of crystalline glazes Sevres is far advanced, and it puts aside the idea that crystalline glazes have no commercial value.
Here we found a large center piece for table use in which the design was in full harmony with the crystalline glaze application, also candle stick holders and other useful articles in which crystalline glazes produce effects which are strictly correct. In dinner sets we did not find many pieces, but the few plates exhibited were neatly designed and decorated. The art nouveau in soft porcelain had many excellent pieces, while in biscuit ware the busts of President Loubet and that of Lafayette were pieces of art. The pate-sur-pate decorations of Taxile Doat were very good. In stoneware, vases and figures were exhibited which were good in their class.
In the Manufacturers’ Building we found Theodore Havilaud and Charles Ahrenfeldt, both of Limoges. Of these two exhibits, Haviland gave us a very good idea as to what the pottery is capable of doing. Table ware decorated with the coats of arms of nearly all royalties of Europe were plain, but tasteful in design. The underglaze designs were good also. The firm had made efforts to produce crystalline zinc glazes and oxblood reds. The crystals on some pieces were good, while on others the crystal growth had been very small. The whole exhibit was attractive and well arranged. Charles Ahrenfeldt also had several dinner sets made for royal use. A neat plain dinner set for the Queen of Holland deserved special mention. The decorations were mostly over glaze with gold. The exhibit had a store-like appearance, but was well arranged.
Camille Naudet, of Paris, exhibited a line of porcelain which was excellent in design and color.
The possibilities of stoneware were shown by G. Hoentschel, of Paris. His exhibit was very instructive, and good effects were produced. This branch of pottery has not yet received much attention from the art potters in this country, and has far greater possibilities than faience for decorative design.
In the art palace and in another wing of the National pavilion, we found the exhibits of the ceramic amateurs of France. A. DeLacherche, Andre Mathey, F. Themar, A. Bigot and others exhibited some very good pieces of porcelain and stoneware, but there were also pieces which had no artistic nor technical character.
Germany. Of all pottery exhibits of this exposition, the display made by Germany was collectively and individually the best arranged of any country. Most of the exhibitors were concentrated in a hall or room, which was justly called “The Ceramic Court,” located in the Varied Industries Building. The entrance to this court consisted of glazed terra cotta of Villeroy & Boch, of Mettlach, and the walls were partly covered with the colored and crystalline glazed tiles of Ludwig Wessel, of Bonn. In neatly-decorated booths, scattered about in this space and along the walls, we found the representatives of the German ceramic industries.
A notable exception in this collective exhibition room was the Royal Berlin Porcelain Manufactory exhibit, which was located some distance away from this court. Its location was most unfavorable in regard to light and general surroundings, and it would have been a great deal better if it had been located closer to the Ceramic Court, or if it had been made a part of it in order to obtain a complete collection of all German potteries present.
The Royal Berlin Porcelain Manufactory, of Berlin, is royal not only in name but in fact. It is operated by the Prussian Government, and it is therefore a state institution. The Royal Berlin, as the pottery is usually spoken of, was established by W. Wegely, in 1751, and became a royal factory in 1760, with the patronage of Frederick the Great. The pottery has had many ups and downs, but it has been the leading one for the last twenty-five years, and stands at the head of the technical application of modern ceramics. The trademark of Royal Berlin is a scepter, usually in under glaze blue, for plain glazed porcelain or an additional imperial globe with a cross with the letters K. P. M. in brown over glaze for decorated ware.
The present vigorous regime and the results accomplished are due to the director, Dr. H. Heinicke, who has associated with him Prof. H. Schley and Prof. Kips.
Studying the exhibit closely we found reproductions of several periods of the pottery’s existence, true hard porcelain with over glaze decorations, big vases with cobalt blue ground on which flowers were harmoniously arranged. The enamel decorations were very good, and were applied with such skill that the technical part of this branch was nearly perfect. The new soft porcelain called “Heinicke Porcelain,” in honor of its maker, Dr. Heinicke, was shown in many new forms and applications. It was used for crystalline glazes with very good zinc and titanic crystalline effects, for colored mottled glazes, for decorating between glaze layers, which technique has been made a special study by Dr. Heinicke. Schmuz-Baudiss used this body mostly for his productions. We found Seger porcelain in various forms and designs, and the little vases with oxblood red were excellent samples of the height to which this pottery has been raised.
Schmuz-Baudiss is the artist of the works. His productions were exhibited in a special case, and his work was excellent. He uses the body in the green, biscuit or glazed state. His specialty is under glaze design with the use of the aerograph, and his work must be considered a new departure of Royal Berlin with which they have made an excellent showing.
In the Mines and Metallurgy Building the manufactory had a most complete exhibit of chemical and technical porcelain, porcelain dishes over three feet in diameter, big developing trays about two feet square, distilling apparatus, pyrometer and other tubes and many other useful articles. In the Electricity Building the firm exhibited also some porcelain articles which are used in laboratory equipments. In the German state building we again found the Royal Berlin represented with large porcelain jardinieres, and big porcelain vases for decorative effects.
The Royal Bavarian Porcelain Manufactory, of Nymphenburg, had made a very good exhibit. This pottery is also royal, but has never been very prominent. During the last few years it has made great efforts to improve its output, and the exhibit showed what has been accomplished in that respect, and knowing the history of the plant we were astonished as to the results obtained.
A. W. Kister, of Scheibe, had a nicely-arranged exhibit of porcelain figures and specialties, which were good in design and finish, while Hermann Ohme, of Niedersalzbrunn, exhibited porcelain dinner sets in different designs. Over glaze designs with rich gold decorations, and also blue glazed ware in gold decorated coffee sets, were good in technical execution.
Ph. Rosenthal & Co., of Selb, exhibited a full line of decorated porcelain mostly in under glaze designs. Some of the designs and colors approached closely the Copenhagen style, and might be considered good imitations. Here we also found a cobalt blue dinner set with gold decorations. Jaeger & Co., of Markt-Redwitz, had an exhibit which was very good in every respect. The color of this porcelain was excellent, and the designs were simple and tasteful. Special mention must be made of a fish set, in which a design of fishes in under glaze colors was very natural.
Heubach Bros., of Lichte, exhibited besides dinner sets in different designs and colors, also toys and other porcelain specialties. The exhibit was well arranged. Of the china decorators Richard Klemm, of Dresden, represented the best skill. Arranged in a case we found several sets of plates decorated richly with portraits and scenes of Napoleonic times. The price marked on these plates was rather high.
In faience we found a large exhibit of Prof. Max Laeuger, of Karlsruhe. His work was of special interest. It showed the application of colored glazes to artistic production. Special mention needs the gold mosaic in glazes which produced fine effects. The large water fountain exhibited in the inner court showed that this firm is able to overcome great technical difficulties.
The Grossherzogliche Majolika Manufactur, and Prof. C. Kornhas, both of Karlsruhe, employ the same style of work and design. The first exhibitor made a specialty of luster glazes, while Prof. Kornhas had tiles and pottery decorated with much gold. The body of the two first mentioned firms was for the greater part a red body, while Kornhas seems to prefer a stoneware body. His crystalline glaze effects on stoneware were very promising.
Reinhold Hanke, of Hoehr, represents the German stoneware manufacturers. His productions deserved much attention, his colored and oxblood red glazes were good, and his collection of steins was excellent.
J. J. Scharvogel, of Munich, exhibited also faience and stoneware of good design, and rich in effect. Among the other exhibitors we find Hermann Mutz, of Altona, Schmidt-Pech, of Konstanz, W. Magnussen, of Bremen, who had mostly exhibited a few pieces of art pottery.
Great Britain. In sharp contrast to the impressions gained of France and Germany in regard to their pottery exhibits, we found Great Britain’s collective pottery industry exhibited in plain black show cases, with no attractions whatever, in the Varied Industries Building. In order to study the exhibits closer we were compelled to seek the man in charge who, however, was unable to give any data relative to the work, except that he had a numbered price list and was eager to sell the goods under his jurisdiction.
One of the two firms who had made a special exhibit was Doulton & Co., of London. The exhibit itself was harmonious and well arranged. This firm manufactures nearly everything that can be made from clay. It manufactures drain tile, sewer pipe, fire clay goods, stoneware, chemical goods, bone china and artware. The works were founded by John Doulton in 1818, and have been in successful operation by the same family ever since. The name “Royal Doulton” was granted recently by special act of King Edward VII. Salt glazed art ware, which has for years made the name of Doulton known over the world, was found in many shapes and designs. Lambeth faience was well represented, and some of the pieces exhibited were excellent. In bone china with modern designs we found many vases and plates which are good examples. In red copper glaze pottery we found many good pieces, but it seems a pity that such a well-known firm should try to deceive the buying public, by publishing in a pamphlet the statement that they have discovered a long lost art. These red glazes, which are obtained by reducing copper at a low heat, have been made by Roseville and Zsolnay for years, with good results. The art was certainly not lost nor rediscovered, and while the pieces exhibited were good, of an oxblood red glaze on true hard porcelain, we were unable to discover even a trace. In the Art Palace we found a few samples by the same firm, and in the Liberal Arts Building there was an excellent exhibit of chemical stoneware, of which a large distillation worm attracted special attention.
The other firm exhibiting outside of the collective exhibit was that of Sir Edmund Harry Elton, Baronet, of Somerset. The product is called “Elton Ware,” and is made in the Sunflower pottery at Somerset. Sir Elton designs all his pottery personally, and his artistic talent is of a high order. The clay body was red, and some of his colored glazes were badly crazed. His golden crackle was very effective, and his lustre colors were good.
In the collective exhibit of the potteries we find Minton’s Ltd., of Stoke-upon-Trent, with pate-sur-pate paintings by Solon. These productions were excellent, and the values were in harmony with the same. A vase with “Nymphes catching Cupid” was valued at $3,750, while another vase with owls, which was very good in design, was marked at $4,200. A few excellent, decorated plates were shown as samples of the general work of the pottery. W. Howson Taylor, of Birmingham, exhibited his Ruskin-ware with flowing blue and green glazes, in vases and specialties, while James McIntyre & Co., Ltd., of Burslem, exhibited art pottery in original designs, which made a good impression. Other art potters who made exhibits were Wardle & Co., Ltd., of Hanley, and W. L. Baron, of Barnstaple. G. L. Ashworth & Bros., of Hanley, exhibited a full line of their original Mason Ironstone China. The Crown Staffordshire Porcelain Co., of Staffordshire, Johnson Brothers, Ltd., of Hanley, Alfred Maekin, Ltd. and Booths, Ltd., both of Tunstall, exhibited dinner sets and plates in decorated designs with gold, mostly in over glaze, while John Maddock & Sons, Ltd., of Burslem, showed good samples of under glaze designs.
Hungary. In the Manufacturers’ Building Hungary had a well-arranged collective exhibit of national architecture, in which we found the pottery exhibits. Miklos Zsolnay, of Budapest, exhibited the products of the pottery of Wilhelm Zsolnay, of Fuenfkirchen, (Pecs). The Zsolnay pottery has a well-known reputation, and the exhibit was excellent in quality. We found a large assortment of its “Eosin” red lustre ware, which was very creditable, also majolica and ivory porcelain art-ware. Jeno Fischer, of Herend, exhibited a nice line of decorated dinner sets, while Emil Fischer, of Budapest, showed a fine line of porcelain dinner sets and majolica vases. The Hungarian Trading Co., Ltd., of Budapest, exhibited a variety of different kinds of pottery, of which the stoneware pieces of Hollohaza were excellent.
India. In the East India Pavilion we found a collection of pottery, which was partly majolica and whiteware, exhibited by Ardeshire & Co., of Bombay.
Ireland. While not officially exhibiting as a country, we found in the Irish Village, on the Pike, the exhibits of the Irish Industries. We found in the pottery line the Belleek Pottery Works, of Belleek, the Fermanach Co. This firm exhibited open work pottery in a very white color. Vases were decorated with flowers and under relief designs. Luster colors applied produced excellent pearl effects. Another Irish firm was the Della Robbia Co., of Birkenhead, Cork Co., which exhibited majolica ware of good quality.
Italy. Typical Italian faience and majolica were well represented in the Manufacturers’ and Varied Industries Buildings. Bernardino Mazzarella, of Naples, made one of the best exhibits in that line with large vases, richly modeled in relief with flowers and decorated in majolica colors. Edoardo D’Amato, also of Naples, exhibited a line of fancy pottery, which was good. The Manifattura di Fontebuoni and of di Signa, both of Florence, exhibited large jardinieres and specialties which were pretty good. All the ceramic exhibits were, however, badly entangled among furniture, silver and other exhibits, and it was difficult to obtain a good idea as to the extent of the Italian pottery. In the Art Palace we found, besides Fontebuoni with some excellent pieces, G. Gregori, with a good majolica exhibit.
Japan. Of all countries, in regard to the largest numbers of pottery exhibits, Japan was the leading one. The catalogue gives 86 porcelain and 89 stoneware and earthenware exhibitors. Most of the pottery was exhibited more with a view to selling than of exhibiting its quality. The best exhibits were in the Art Palace, while the balance were located in the Varied Industries Building. Typical Japanese porcelain we found exhibited by Sobie Kinkozan, of Kyoto, who had a very good exhibit. The porcelain exhibited by Meizan Yabu, of Osaka, was of good design and shape. Both exhibited also in the Art Palace. T. Hodata, of Yokohama, showed some excellent pieces of porcelain. One of the most complete exhibits was made by Koranshi & Co., of Kyoto. Here we found Arita porcelain, Arita-Hizen art ware and Imari pottery in large quantities and of good quality.
The earthenware and stoneware exhibits were really of a higher character than the porcelain branch. K. Miyagawa, of Yokohama, exhibited very good ware, while Takito & Co., of Nagoya, presented their results in crystalline glaze effects. T. Kota, of Tokio, and G. Koran, of Saga-Ken, exhibited stoneware of good quality and rich in design. In the Art Palace we found beside some of the exhibitors already mentioned, the Kyoto Pottery & Porcelain Co., of Kyoto, who exhibited yellow mottled matt glazes, and J. Uno, also of Kyoto, with green matt glazes. We observe that the Japanese adopt European designs and shapes more and more, and that the characteristics of typical Japanese ware are disappearing. Before long Japan will be a serious competitor on our home market.
Mexico. The Junta Local de Exposicion, of Puebla, exhibited white ware and faience pottery in the Manufactures Building. Some of the dinner sets were decorated in blue under the glaze, and some showed over glaze decoration. With additional technical improvement this firm ought to be able to make first class ware for the home market. E. Chateaumorand, also of Pueblo, exhibited a few pieces of pottery, of a porcelain like character.
Netherlands. Among the pottery exhibits of the Netherlands in the Varied Industries Building, are two well-known firms. The old Delft faience pottery of Joost, Thooft & Labouchere, called “De Porceleyne Fles,” of Delft, is the older one of the two. This pottery was established in 1655, and has been in operation under different managements ever since. Its trademark is the outline of a jar, with the name Delft always in blue under the glaze. The exhibit of this firm formed an interesting collection. Here we found first of all, reproductions of the old Pynacker faience, which was made in 1660 after the pottery was first started. Next comes old Delft faience of a red body and stanniferous glaze, with blue over glaze decorations. Productions of a later period are dark gray bodies with tin glazes. Then we come to the modern Delft ware of a bluish white body, with transparent glaze and blue under glaze decoration. The tile exhibit of this firm was described under part IV. On a separate table was exhibited a large collection of the results of modern glaze technology. Here we found vases with beautiful crystalline glaze effects, luster colors, matt glazes and other productions. This exhibit showed that this pottery, while preserving its traditional name as “Delft,” is able at any time to share with its competitors the results of modern ceramics.
The Royal Porcelain and Pottery Manufactory “Rozenburg,” of the Hague, is the other firm. This pottery exists since 1883, and was granted the privilege of calling itself “Royal” by the Queen of Holland in 1901. The trademark of Royal Rozenburg is the city seal of the Hague—a stork on one leg—with a crown, and the name “Den Haag.” This trademark is somewhat confusing, in as much as the old porcelain factory which existed from 1778-1795, and whose products bring high prices today, had the same mark, without the crown.
The main feature of Royal Rozenburg was its bone china, artistically decorated in original style. The lightness of this porcelain was commended upon by everyone. The body was very white and translucent, and gave evidence that the technical problems were well taken care of. The exhibit further showed the old Dutch faience work, which was the original beginning of the pottery. Wed. N. S. A. Brandjes & Co., of Purmerend, exhibited a full line of artistic faience pottery, while the Plateelbakery “De Distel,” of Amsterdam, and the Plateelbakkery “Delft,” of Hilversum, showed pottery of no special original design.
Persia. In the Persian pavilion we found a case with old Persian pottery exhibited by D. Kelekian, of Dikran Khan, which included some excellent pieces in turquoise and Persian blues.
Portugal. In the Manufactures’ Building, the Fabrica de Faiancas das Caldas da Rainha, of Caldas, showed a line of Portuguese majolica and faience which were characteristic of that country.
Siam. The Royal Commission exhibited in the Manufactures Building earthenware, which was made by the natives, while the Udawn Committee showed samples of the same class of pottery decorated in various colors.
Sweden. This country had made quite an interesting exhibit of pottery in the Manufactures Building, and the leading manufacturers were well represented. The Rorstrand Porslinfabrik, of Stockholm, exhibited a line of decorated porcelain of the style of the Copenhagen, but heavier in body. The application of crystalline glazes was brought to commercial perfection, and the articles exhibited were a credit to the firm. Majolica vases and table ware were good in design and color.
The Gustafsberg Pottery Co., also of Stockholm, exhibited whiteware in table and toilet sets, as well as vases in majolica, which were neat and plain in design. The parian biscuit for statuary was very pleasing, and showed some good modeling.
United States. The pottery exhibits of the United States were well distributed all over the World’s Fair grounds, as already mentioned before. A few of the main exhibits of the leading art potteries were located in the Varied Industries Building, while nearly all other exhibits, with few exceptions, were located in the Mines and Metallurgy Building.
Arizona. Indian pottery was exhibited by J. W. Benhem, of Phoenix, in a well-arranged exhibit in the Anthropology Building.
Arkansas. The Eagle Pottery, of Benton, exhibited in the Mines Building some very good stoneware in white and brown glazes.
Colorado. The Van Briggle Pottery, of Colorado Springs, exhibited at three places, the Art Palace, the Mines, and the Varied Industries Buildings. The main exhibit was located in the latter. The products of this pottery were blended matt glazes on a close, nearly vitrified, stone ware body. The forms and designs of vases and other specialties were plain, with occasional decoration in light relief. The matt glazes produced imposing effects, and the blending of the same is artistic. The colors, which were quite numerous, vary from gray, green, red, yellow and blue to blue green.
Connecticut. The Hartford Faience Co., of Hartford, exhibited in a large case electrical porcelain in all shapes and forms. This exhibit was part of its main exhibit in the Mines Building.
Illinois. The art pottery of the state is the Gates Potteries, of Chicago. The works are located at Terra Cotta, and the product, “Teco” ware, is manufactured there. The exhibit was located in the Varied Industries Building, in a neatly-designed booth. The forms of Teco are original; they are mostly designed by artists. The green matt glaze is characteristic of Teco. It does not possess the harsh feeling which some matt glazes show, and has a soft surface. Porcelain vases with effective crystalline glazes, and faience, with gold spangled effects were represented by samples, showing that the technical problems are well mastered by the firm. Special pieces were also exhibited in the Art Palace.
In the Mines building the Weir Pottery Co., of Monmouth, exhibited a full line of its fruit jars of stoneware in a patent design. The Shelton Pottery, of Metropolis, presented stoneware products.
Indiana. In the Varied Industries Building we found a neatly arranged exhibit of the State Association of China Decorators, of Indianapolis. Of the 35 exhibitors catalogued under group 45, Ceramics, 24 belong to this one collective exhibit.
Iowa. The Fort Dodge Stoneware Co., of Fort Dodge, exhibited with the Iowa Commission in the Manufacturers’ Building a full line of its white glazed stoneware, jars and crocks, while in the Mines Building, both the Red Oak Pottery Co., of Red Oak, and the Fort Dodge Pottery Co., of Fort Dodge, exhibited their stoneware products.
Louisiana. The Newcomb Pottery, of New Orleans, had its main exhibit in the Mines Building, while a few pieces found a place in the Art Palace. Newcomb Pottery had its origin in the Art Department of Newcomb College, of New Orleans, and is made by women under the supervision of the college. The subjects of the designs were flower reliefs, and also glaze effects.
Kansas. The Fort Scott Pottery Co., of Fort Scott, exhibited stoneware in different shapes, mostly in brown glazes, in the State exhibit in the Mines Building.
Maryland. A large case with pottery exhibited by the Baltimore potteries, was located in the Mines Building. The Edwin Bennett Pottery Co., and D. F. Haynes & Son, both of Baltimore, exhibited table ware and toilet sets, richly decorated, jardinieres and specialties. The exhibit was well arranged, and showed a large variety of products. Other pottery exhibitors were George S. Kalb & Son, of Catonsville, and M. Perine & Son, of Baltimore, with stoneware and earthenware articles.
Massachusetts. The Grueby Faience Co., of Boston, exhibited, as already mentioned under part IV, in the Varied Industries Building. Some pieces of pottery were also on exhibition in the Art Palace. The Grueby Faience Co. had a neatly designed exhibit, in which architectural terra cotta was predominant. In pottery we found a line of lamp bases, which formed the attraction of the exhibit. The pottery was finished in a matt green glaze of light shade. Some pieces have also a blue matt finish.
In the Art Palace H. C. Robertson, of Dedham, exhibited flowing colored glazes, luster effects which were good, while the Merimac Pottery, of Newburyport, showed a collection of vases in different designs and colors.
Mississippi. The greater part of the state exhibit in the Mines building was devoted to the products of the clay artist, George E. Ohr, of Biloxi, articles in nearly all imaginable forms and designs. They were finished mostly in bright colored glazes, though some luster and matt effects were found on several pieces.
New Jersey. The Trenton Potteries Co., of Trenton, made a splendid exhibit of its sanitary products in the Manufactures Building. Glazed white wall tiles, white porcelain wash-stands, bath tubs, in fact, even the door knobs and the plumbing were executed in white porcelain, thus illustrating a bath room, completely finished in white. Another bath room was in the same style but finished with gold decoration. In order to illustrate the work of the firm along other lines, a few cases with splendidly decorated pottery, consisting of vases and specialties in over glaze work, were also exhibited.
The Fulper Pottery Co., of Flemington, exhibited a line of stoneware filters in blue Flemish design, in the Mines building, while in the Art Palace we found a few samples of the Poillion Pottery Co., of Woodridge.
None of the Trenton or New Jersey general whiteware potteries had made an exhibit. They were not even represented in the State exhibit with a collective exhibit, and in that respect they showed still less intelligence than their competitors in other states. Such a pitiful state of affairs among our American potters is evidence of the total lack of self-respect and confidence towards their own products.
New York. The Onondaga Pottery Co., of Syracuse, made a very interesting exhibit of its bone china products in the Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines Building. It made a very creditable showing, and may be considered the best exhibit made in the United States for table ware. The designs and decorations were conventional in style, and were in strict harmony with the ware. The color of the body was excellent, and the glaze was perfect. It was an instructive exhibit for the foreigners, which showed them that America will, in the future, be capable of competing with Europe in that branch of ceramics.
In the same section the Brouwer Pottery, of Westhampton, had made an exhibit. Mr. T. A. Brouwer himself is the designer and potter. His ware comprises luster effects, and his gold leaf work, under the glaze, deserved special mention.
Charles Volkmar, of New York, exhibited in the Art Palace samples of his art pottery. Electrical porcelain was exhibited in the Mines building by the Empire China Works, of Brooklyn, and in the Electricity building by the Locke Insulator Mfg. Co., of Victor.
Ohio. The Rookwood Pottery Co., of Cincinnati, had its main exhibit in the Varied Industries Building. This exhibit embraced products of all periods, and included the latest achievements in design and finish. We found original “Rookwood” with the glaze slip decorated ware in yellow and dark colors, the lighter shades of “Sea Green” and “Iris” ware, gold stone and tiger eye samples of crystalline glazes, and finally the matt glazes in green and other colors. The latest product was the “Vellum” ware in transparent matt glaze, with light decorations. In finish, texture, and application, this glaze must be considered the best product this pottery has ever turned out. By its application the artist is given full credit for his design, and the dull transparent finish reproduces the full effect of the painting. Rookwood exhibited also in the Art Palace, in the Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines Building, and in the Anthropology Building, where Rookwood pottery illustrated the application to modern art of the forms and decorative motives derived from the fictile art of the North American Indians.
The Roseville Pottery Co., of Zanesville, exhibited in the Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines Building, a full line of its various styles of pottery, and the productions represented an excellent quality. “Rozane” ware, which has a copper red, reduced, glaze gives good effects, and while the technical part was not quite perfect on some pieces, the ware has a bright future as being in the same class as Zsolnay’s Eosin ware and Doulton’s “Lost Art” ware.
The Weller Pottery Co., also of Zanesville, which we have already mentioned under the educational part, had exhibited a full line of its products, in their main working exhibit in the Mining Gulch. In the Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines Building they also had a good exhibit. Of the different styles exhibited we found the Aurelian ware, Louwelsa ware, Eocean ware and Sicardo Lustre ware to be the best. Beside this full line of art ware, they also showed a full line of cooking ware, which indicates the many varieties which the firm is able to manufacture.
The Owens China Co., of Minerva, was the only individual exhibitor of American whiteware in the Varied Industries Building. The exhibit showed some good samples of table ware in semi-porcelain, the decoration being a good quality.
In the Ohio State exhibit in the Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines building, we found samples of fourteen whiteware potteries of East Liverpool, which consisted of only one plate of each pottery, while samples of plates of other potteries outside of East Liverpool were also exhibited. The Edwin M. Knowles China Co., of East Liverpool, and the Pope Gosser China Co., of Coshocton, had made a somewhat better display in exhibiting more pieces. The McNicoll Pottery, of East Liverpool, showed yellow ware. Stoneware as jars, crocks and cooking ware was represented by the Zanesville Stoneware Co., the Zanesville Filter & Pottery Co., both of Zanesville, the Logan Pottery Co., of Logan, and the Robinson Clay Products Co., of Akron.
Art Pottery was represented in this state exhibit by the Oakwood Pottery Co., of Dayton, the Florentine Pottery Co., of Chillicothe, the Arc-Enciel Pottery Co. and the Zanesville Art Pottery Co., both of Zanesville. These exhibits were for the greater part luster productions, with the exception of the Dayton firm, which had a green matt glaze.
In electrical specialties we found the exhibits of the Akron Insulator & Marble Co., of Akron, F. W. Brunt Pottery Co., of East Liverpool, and the New Lexington High Voltage Porcelain Co., of New Lexington.
Pennsylvania. Beside the Mayer pottery exhibit of Beaver Falls, already mentioned before, we found in the Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines Building the Sherwood Bros. Pottery Co., of New Brighton, with a full line of its stoneware specialties.
Texas. Several small pottery concerns of the state exhibited in the Mines Building stoneware products, which were of good quality.
Wisconsin. Sampson & Ipson, of Edgerton, exhibited in the Mines building samples of their Norse ware. While it cannot directly be classified as strictly ceramic ware, it being a red body painted with oil colors and finished in ancient Greek style, it must be said that the product had some merit.
The Pauline Pottery Co., also of Edgerton, exhibited in the Wisconsin State Building some very good specimens of under glazed faience.
Resume on Part VI.
A review of the exhibits described under this heading reveals a most interesting study. We have seen the exhibits of pottery of all the leading countries of the world, and what do we find? Every country has its own designs and decorations, and its own distinctive pottery. We further found that in every country the leading class of pottery is imitated by others in the same country, sometimes very closely, and sometimes with variations, but nevertheless, they are imitations.
Taking the leading exhibits of each country, we found in Germany that over and under glaze decorated porcelains are most in vogue. In France, artistic stoneware and crystalline glazes are favorites. In Denmark and Sweden, the two northern countries, under glaze porcelain is cultivated with art and skill. In Japan the old Japanese style still holds its own, with a few European imitations. Holland has its own Delft blue, while Italy is still the home of old majolica. In Austria a gray porcelain matt is much admired, while in our own country a green faience of velvet finish is a propitious article.
The progress made by Royal Berlin in porcelain and by Royal Doulton in stoneware, for technical, chemical and electrical purposes, is great, and before long we will find porcelain and stoneware substituted in many processes where formerly metal appliances were used.
Coming to the United States we have observed with pain the total absence of American whiteware potteries as individual exhibitors, with the exception of one small exhibit. This absence may be construed as having two explanations. First, that the whiteware potters were afraid to go before the world with their goods in competition with foreigners, and thus silently admit their inferiority, or secondly, that they were so narrow minded as to fail to see the benefit to be derived from open advertising and public exhibition. In porcelain we do not have anything to show, while in bone china the Onondaga Pottery Co., of Syracuse, N. Y., produces ware of excellent quality.
We look to expositions, as a rule, for new productions and exhibits of new processes, and we naturally ask ourselves what new features were observed in the pottery lines, from an international standpoint. The answer is that there is nothing new with the exception of the Vellum ware of the Rookwood Pottery Co., of Cincinnati. The fine exhibits of Germany, France, Denmark, Sweden and Holland, especially along the crystalline glaze line, were a treat to many of us, who were permitted to look upon these productions for the first time, but the Paris Exposition of 1900 showed us exactly the same thing. It may be possible that the technology of the successful commercial production of these effects has been more complete than before. The pieces exhibited do not give us, however, any information in that respect.
Part VII: Conclusions
In the preceding chapters we have endeavored to review the exhibits of the ceramic industries. We have given a resume in each section in order to make the same more complete, and we will now conclude this review with a few suggestions and conclusions.
Summing up all the exhibits, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition goes down in history as having been a good and fair exhibition of the Ceramic Industries. We could have expected more exhibitors and more detail in the exhibits proper; however, in most cases the best firms had made exhibits, and the products exhibited were a fair average of each country.
From an American standpoint we still have much to learn from our older competitors, in order to raise our home production to such a standard that importation may be diminished. This is especially the case in table ware products, where it is only a matter of technical perfection in order to produce pottery as good as that made abroad.
In chemical stoneware, we could at least try to manufacture such ware. Our stoneware clays are well adapted for it. Our mechanical and technical skill is such that it will overcome any difficulty pertaining to its manufacture.
In the porcelain line, the chemical and technical sides are still lacking commercial support in order to manufacture such goods in this country.
Judging from a foreign standpoint, we Americans have shown that we are an enterprising, investigating and rapidly learning people, and that they must be on their guard in order to retain the trade already established.
Opinions expressed by visiting members of the foreign ceramic industries, personally, and in the foreign trade literature, praise the American displays made by the coarser grades of the ceramic art, while they express a feeling of disappointment in the exhibits of finer ceramics, with the exception of the art ware line. From these same sources we learn that our Society is held in high esteem abroad, and that they fully realize the good work which has been done by our members so far, which tends to produce better quality rather than greater quantity.
As all exhibits have surprising or disappointing features, it must be noted that the impossibility of collecting data in regard to the exhibits proper, and the difficulties encountered in this work were most disappointing. In those exhibits which distributed pamphlets or circulars we were able to obtain a better idea of the pieces exhibited than in those in which such matter was entirely lacking. If we inspect and study an exhibit from the commercial or technical standpoint, we want to know some facts in order to familiarize ourselves with the product presented. The lack of such facts lessens the interest, and the exhibit, may it be as good as could be produced, is passed by as incomplete. We found the foreigners in better shape in connection with such matters than the Americans. The Clay Industries Exhibit in the Mines Building was, with few exceptions, entirely lacking in this respect. It would, therefore, be advisable to impress upon future exhibitors the importance of this feature as being not only good advertising, but also conductive to public education.
Another bad feature of the exposition was that the commercial side was given too much prominence. Exhibits were more arranged on the style of a bazaar or bargain counter than in the spirit of an exposition, purely and simply competitive in design, quality, workmanship and finish.
Before closing this chapter there are two points of a general nature upon which we will touch. Inasmuch as we personally do not consider that sand-lime bricks have any more right to be collected under the head of “Clay Industry” than glass or cement, we did not consider in this review the sand-lime brick exhibits in the Clay Industries section, as they were out of place in that otherwise well-arranged collective exhibit of the American Ceramic Industries.
As expositions are likely to be held again, and juries of awards are sure to be made again part of such expositions, we make a strong plea for a better understanding of the duties and qualifications of the jury which is to judge the ceramic industry. At this exposition we found two international juries judging this industry, one composed of technical men, on which members of our Society were well represented, and another composed, with a few exceptions, of commercial men and art lovers. The first named jury judged everything in the Mines Building from clay to finished products, while the other jury only judged finished products as exhibited in the Manufacturers’ and Varied Industries Buildings. This division made a very bad impression upon the exhibitors and foreign jurors. The leading foreign countries like Germany, France and Japan had experts appointed for jury duties, and these jurors were, for the greater part, unable to exercise their full duties in regard to judging the whole industry, on account of this division.
The Ceramic Industries of the world have long since grown out of their childhood, and should be able to see to it that the judging of its products, be it in an international or a national contest, should be done by experts, who are able to determine and judge the value of a clay sample or the highest class product made from the same, in order to give weight and value to exposition awards.